快3

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中国文学网

丁玲的教诲 老舍的叮嘱——“文学讲习所”纪事之三

李宏林

  dinglingzaiwenxuejiangxisuoyouzheteshudediwei。1950nian,zhonghuarenmingongheguogangchenglibujiu,youyananlaidaobeijingdezuojiadingling,chuyuduixinzhongguowenxueshiyefazhandeguanxinzhudongxiangzhongyanglingdaotichubanxuedeyuanwang,dedaopizhun,zaibeijingkaibanlezhongyangwenxuejiangxisuo,danrendiyirensuozhang。guloudongdajie103haoshitaqinzikaochaxuandingdebansuodizhi。qingnaxiezhuanjia、jiaoshoujiangkeshitaqinzianpaihuoshidengmenyaoqingde。dinglingbudanrensuozhanghouhaidanrenjiangxisuoxiaoshuozuxueyuandedaoshi,bingjingchanglaisuojiangke。dinglingxiaidexueyuanxiangmalaqinfudengjingchangwangdinglingjialipao,dinglingduiyierqijiangxisuolideqingkuangfeichangshuxi,liangqixueyuanmenduidinglingsuozhangyetebiejingyang。

  1957niandinglingbeizuoweiyoupaifenzishouchulizhihou,youliangdazuizhuangzaishehuishangchuandefeifeiyangyang,binggongkaipipan。yishishuotazaiwenxuejiangxisuoxuanyang“yibenshuzhuyi”;ershishuotaxuanyang“lilunwuyonglun”。

  “yibenshuzhuyi”shitazaidiyiqixueyuanzhongtichangde,tazaikuai3dierqidejiangkezhongyeyousuotiji。taneishizhengzhizhongnian,gerendezhengzhidiwei、shenghuohuanjingdouhao,suoyirenyefutai,yuanpangdelianpang,liangzhibiaozhixingdedayanjing,zongshiheshandikanren。tachuanzheyijianzihongsemaowaitao,zaijiangtaishang,xiangjiazhangyuhaizimenduihuasidejianghua。tashinanfangren,jianghuashengyinjiancui,shentaicongrong、chongmanzixin,xiangshuoshenmejiushuoshenme,shuoleile,tabafangzaizhuoshangdeyizhixiaoyaopingdakai,daochuyilihongyaowansongjinzuili。kehourenmenwenzhangfengzhu: “dinglingchideshishenme?”huidashuo: “shirencanwaner,jianghuashijianzhangle,leile,keyibuqi。”dinglingjiangkeshiqiangdiaoshuo: “peiyangnimenganshenme?jiushiyaoxiechuhaoshulai,xiebuchushulaijiaoshenmezuojia?”tatidaozhouzonglishuoguo: “naweibuzhangnengxiechuhaoxiaoshuo,kuai3burangtadangbuzhang,keyiqudangzuojia。”kanlaijiyuyaochuhaodewenxuezuopin,bujinshidinglingdekeqiu,yeshiguojiadeqidai。dangshizhongguodeliangbuxiaoshuo《taiyangzhaozaisangganheshang》he《baofengzhouyu》huodesidalinwenxuejiang,duitigaoxinzhongguodeguojiweiwangqidaolehendadezuoyong,erdangshixinzhongguohaimeiyoujibuzhangpianxiaoshuochuxian,dinglingxiwangxinzhongguonengyongxianchuyipizhimingzuojia,yongyouxiuzuopinweixinzhongguokuai3,zheishishifenzhengchangdeshi。2006niankuai3canjiazhongguozuojiaxiehuidiqiciquanguodaibiaodahui,kaihuiqijianyuwenxuejiangxisuodiyiqixueyuan、《xiaobingzhangga》dezuozhexuguangyaozuozaiyiqi,tatanqi“yibenshuzhuyi”shishuo,taqinertingdaodinglingjiangzuojiayaoxiechuyibenhaoshulai,dangshimeiyouyigerenjuechutashizaiguchuishenmeminglisixiang。zuojiaxiechuhaoshushizhiyeyaoqiu,shibenfen,shixiangshehuijinzeren。qishidinglingyaoqiuzuojiaxiechuyibenhaoshulai,duidangshizaiwenxuejiangxisuoxuexidexueyuanmenshiyizhongjili。

快3  tadezaiyige“zuizhuang”shixuanyang“lilunwuyonglun”。zheige“maozi”buxiao。dinglingzaijiangkeshishuoguodushu、shenghuo、chuangzuoyulilundeguanxi。talizhiqizhuangdishuo: “nimendushubuyaotailizhi,yibiandushuyibiankaolvzhutishishenme,renwudesixiangshishenme,jiaotiaodiqudushu,meiyouyisi。kuai3buzheimedushu,kuai3yongganqingqudu,bazijideganqingrongjinshuzhongsuobiaodadeganqing,quxiangshou、qutihui,zheizhongganzhijileiduole,jiuhuizaichuangzuoshangyousuochudong、yousuoqifa。taililunle、taiqingchule,kenengnizhijizhuleyixiekongfandesixianghejiaotiao,duichuangzuowuyi,buhao。”guanyuzuojiayushenghuodewenti,dinglingyizaiqiangdiaozuojiayaoshenrudaoshenghuozhongqu,tapipingyixiezuojiazuomeiyoubenqiandemaimai,tashuofenghoudeshenghuocaishixiezuodebenqian。tabiaoshizijiyuanyihuanhuanjialidekeren,xiwangduolaixiegongren、nongmin、putongbaixing,shitabuduantongshenghuozaijicengdeminzhongyoulianxi。tahaigaosudajia,zuojiazhuyaoshixiepingchangren,xiehaopingchangrenshiyibeiziyaonulideshi。xianjindeyixiezuojialaoshizhongfudixierenmendouzhidaodegushi,laoshishuoneimejijujiaotiaodehua,meiyoushenghuoqiangquxie,zheibushichuangzuo。tapipingyixiesuoweidelilunjia: “zuopindegongshihua、gainianhua,doushituolishijidelilunjiajiaochulaide,buyaokantamenneixiedongxi。”zheixiejianruideyuyanshikuai3qinerzaidaketangshangtingdaode。1954nian2yuedeyitian,dinglinglaidaowenxuejiangxisuo,jindaoxueyuansushelikanwangtafudaodejigexuesheng。yixiezaisuolidexueyuantingdaozheigexiaoxidouyongjindinglingluozuodefangjian,weizhetazuozhe,tingtajiangshouwenxuechuangzuo。kexideshidangshikuai3meizaisuoli,cuoguoletinglaosuozhangjiaodaodejihui。zheishiyicilishixingdehuijian,weilejishuzheicihuijian,40duonianhou,yishishandongshengwenlianfuzhuxidemiaodeyu,badinglingdangshijianghuadequanbujilufabiaozai《jinwanbao》shang,bujiudedaoleyishizhongguozuojiaxiehuifuzhuxidedengyoumeidehuiying。tachulegengzhengmiaodeyuzaigebiejilushangdecuowuhou,zhuyaoshiweimiaodeyubiaogong,shimiaodeyubayifenjuyoudangdaiwenxueshiyanjiujiazhidedinglingtanhuazhunquedibaoliuxialai。dinglingdezheicitanhua,jibenshangshitazaijiangkeshideguandian,buguogengxitongleyixie。dengyoumeixiangxidijiangshuledinglingjianghuadebeijing: yinweidangshixiangsulian“yibiandao”,shenmedouxuesulian,zaiwenyishangjiubasidalindingde“shehuizhuyixianshizhuyi”chuangzuoyuanzebandaozhongguodewenyichuangzuozhonglai。“shehuizhuyixianshizhuyi”yishehuizhuyijiaoyurenzuoweisixianghexin,zaixuexihechuangzuoshijianzhong,jiubashehuizhuyisixiangfangzaishouwei。dushuyaocongshuzhongzhaoshehuizhuyisixiangyinsu,xiezuoyaotixianshehuizhuyisixiangzhuti。jianjiandixuexi、jiaoxuehexiezuobianchuxianleyizhongxingshizhuyidemoshi,yixiexueyuanjuedemianduifengfudewenxuemingzhuzhizuojiandandechouxiangzhenglihegaikuorenshi,xuebudaowenxuedezhenzhengneihan,youkunao。youdexueyuanxinjingdanzhandifanyinglezheigebuhechaoliudekunhuo,dinglingdezhizheizhongqingkuanghou,zaijiangkezhong,zaiyuxueyuandejiaotanzhong,xiangjiaotiaodeliluntiaozhan,weihuwenxuezishendeguilv。zheizhongyongqi,buzhishilaiyuanyutafenghoudedeshixueyang、caiqingdanlve,gengzaiyutayouyizhongganyudandangdejingshenfenggu。

  1982nianxiatian,dinglingbeiyaoqingdaoshenyangjiangxue。liaoningzuojiaxiehuichangwufuzhuxiyutiepeitong,majiazhuxirangkuai3zuoweidinglingdexueshengcanjiajiedai。zaishenyangdejitian,dinglinghezhangfuchenmingcanguan、guangjie、chifan、tanhuakuai3douzaishenbian。youjihuijinyibulejietadexintai。tadetanhuahejiangxuetuchulianggeneirong,yigeshitabutongyidangshiliuxingde“daigou”detifa。tashuo,guojiajinxing“sihua”kuai3shimeigezhongguorendezeren,laoshaoxinqingdouyaoyizhi,qiangdiaoshenme“daigou”,kuai3butongyi。jiangxueneitiantachuanzheyijianbanxiubaisechenshan,daigechasejingpiandexiaoyanjing,zaidajiangtangliji1000duomingqingnianjiangke。tashouxianshuo: “kuai3henimenbucunzai‘daigou’,kuai3shiweizhetongyigemubiaojudaoyiqide。sheijiang‘daigou’jiushiburangkuai3canjia‘sihua’kuai3!”yijingshi70duosuidelaoren,duizuguodereaizhixinyiranhuore,xianshenguojiadekuai3zhiqingrengbujiandangnian。tajiangkedelingyigezhuyaoneirong,jiushizuojia、renminheshenghuodeguanxi。taqiangdiaodehaishi28nianqiantazaiwenxuejiangxisuolunshudeguandian,tashuo,“zuojiayaochenxiaqu,chenyixiahao,chenyixiajiuhuisikao。piaofushicongshangbiankandixiamengmenglonglong,chenxiashitangzaidixiawangshangkan,jiuqingqingchuchu。”tashuo: “renminqunzhongshikuai3deshengmingyuanquan,zaibeidahuangkuai3weitamenzuoyidianshenmeshiqing,tamenjiugulikuai3,shitamenzaikuai3kunnanshiqijikuai3bangzhu。”chenmingcengjiang,yiweinonggongjiashu,bayudinglingheyingdezhaopianyizhiguazaijialiqiangshang,yizhidaodinglingpingfanhou,tamenfufuzhongfanbeidahuangshi,zheizhangzhaopianhaiguazaiyuanchu。jiangwankehoudinglingdengshangjiaoche,shushimingqingnianrenweiraozhecheburangdinglinglikai,dinglingyaoxiachechuang,taweixiaozhe,bashoushenchuchuangwaiyuduorenwoshou,kuai3paleizhelaoren,cuisijikaiche,dinglingcaimantengtengdiliqu。jiandaozheigeqingjing,kuai3shifengandong。dinglingreairenmin,renminyereaita,zheijiushirenmindezuojiayurenminqunzhongdeguanxi。yihandeshizhengdangdinglinghuaizhemanqiangreqingxiangyaoweizuguoherenminshuxiexindewenxuepianzhangshi,queguozaodilikailetareaidetudiherenmin。danshitaliuxialeyifenyichan: zaishijiexuduodifangchenglileyanjiudinglingdejigou,yanjiuzheduocizhaokaiguojixinghuiyi,yantaodinglingdewenxuechuangzuohetaduizhongguowenxuedezhongyaogongxian。tayejitajiaohuiguodexueshengmendailaiyifenrongyao。

  zaiwenxuejiangxisuoxuexiqijianlaoshecenglaisuojiangke。tadiercilaiwenxuejiangxisuoshizai1955nian4yue,dierqixueyuantiqianjieyedeqianxi。neishibeijingwenyijiepipanhufengdeshitouzhengmeng,kuai3xueyuanyechangquwenyibumenpangtingpipandahui。

  zhengshizaizheizhongshihou,wenxuejiangxisuojuedingtiqianjieye,zhongguozuojiaxiehuiweipaifuzhuxijianqingnianbu(youchengpujibu)zhurendelaoshelaisongbiedierqixueyuan。laoshedetuiyoumaobing,suiranbudao60sui,danyijingyaoshouzhushouzhangjielixingzoule。beijingde4yueshichunnuanzhahandeshijie,zheitianshangwu,laoshechuanzheshuangpaikoudelaoshizangqingsenizidayi,daidingzhimao,jiazheneifubiaozhixingdexibianyanjing,zaidaketangshangyuxueyuanjianmianbingjianghua。tazuozaiyizishang,tuodiaoledayi,luchuyishenzhengjiedezhongshanzhuang,toufayeshudezhengqi,tamiankongheshan,yikoubeijingqiang,yuqiwenhe,shuohuamanshengmanyu。dangshi,fanhufengyundongjinluomigu,xingshibiren,bidekuai3tiqianjieye,zuoweizuojiaxiehuidedaibiaohelingdaoren,yinggaibahufengwentizuoweikaichangbaicaishi,erqiguaideshi,xianshengjingduihufengzhiziweiti,li“yundong”yuanyuande。kaikoushizhuhedajiaxuexiyouchengji,ranhoujiudingzhudajiahuiquruhezhuyigerenxingxiang,zenyanganpaihaozijiderichangshenghuo。tashuo: “nimenshiqingnianzuojia,zijiyaoyougewenmingdexingxiang,yifuyaochuandezhengjie,toufayaoshudeqizheng,buyaopipitatade,xiandeculumeiwenhua。”tahaitishidajia,xiezuodeshuanmeitianyaocashiganjing,shugaoyaobaizhengqi,biediusanluoside。chuangtaishangyaobaishangliangpenhua,xieleile,kankanhua,jiepilao,haiyouyizhongyuyuegan,duixiezuoyouhaochu。ruguoyouyuanzi,yuanluokuanchang,zaidianhuacaoguomu,neigengshixiezuodeshangchenghuanjing。laoshejiangle20fenzhong,shizhongbulizuojiaxiushen、zhongshiwenminghuanjingdeneirong。tadeyixihuaxiangdangdibufuhedangshidezhengzhiqihou。erqiyou45mingxueyuan,daduoshizaizhanhuozhongheshengchandiyixianzouchulaide,zaizhengzhilichangshangjunshijiandingbuyidegemingzhanshi,suoyilaoshedejianghuameiyingdeduoshaozhangsheng。huihou,shenzhiyoujijindexueyuanshuolaosheshiyindaoqingnianzuojiatuolizhengzhi,wangxiangyatalizuan。kuai3xiangneishilaoshebutanhufengshijian,shizhengzhiderenbiaoxianchudezhengzhizhihui。zaikangrizhanzhengshiqi,laoshechuren“wenxie”delingdaoren,aiguodewenyijiabaokuohufengzaineidoushitadepengyou,douzaitadezuzhixiajinxinghuodong,talejiemeiweiwenyijia。yuhufengzaiwenyililunshangdeduizhi,zaineigeshiqijiuhenjiliele,zhenglunshenme,yusheizhenglun,tadouqingchu,zuoweiminzhurenshidelaoshe,tabingbulichangxianmingdizhanzainayifang,taduihufengdewentixinzhongyoushu。zaiquanguoxianqifanhufengyundongshi,yizhikanbujianlaoshedezhandoushenying,ruguoshiyouyibikaihufengwenti,neishitabingchiliangxindeyizhongxuanze。

  zaihuigulaosheduikuai3dedingzhu,henzhidekuai3sikao。jianghuashidelaoshe,zaoyishifeishengguoneiwaiwentandezhongguozuojia,tazhouyoushijie,jiechuguoxuduoguojiadexianjinwenhua,yuxuduowaiguozuojiayoujiaowang,taduizhongguoqingnianzuojiadeqipanbushizaiyuqingnianmenzaijiejidouzhengzhongbiaoxianderuheyingyong,ershixiwangtamenchengzhangweijuyoufenghouwenhuasuyang、juzhiyouyadezuojia。laosheshibataduizhongwaizhumingzuojiadelejiehetagerendejingyanchuanshoujikuai3,duijintiandeyixieqingnianzuojia,yiranbushiqijiaoyuyiyi。

  kexi,yishengbuyuanjuanruzhengzhidouzhengxuanwodeyidaiwenxuedashi,zhongjiubunengduoguolishidechongji,1966nian8yue24ri,laoshehanyuanchenrubeijingtaipinghu。jukaozheng,taipinghufujinshitalaomuqindezuihoujuzhudi,aiguoaimindedazuojialaoshexiansheng,zuizhonghaishibatadezuiaixianjilemuqin,tawushengxidizhangmianzaimuqindeshenbian,errenminhuainianta。

  

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