快3

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中国文学网

文艺批评,握好一把“中国尺”——关于文艺批评的风格问题

韩伟

【文艺观潮】  

  zaiwenyilingyutanjifengge,yibanlaishuojiangzhishiweiwenyizuopindebiaozhi,shiwenyizuopinsuotixiandedutedegexingtezheng。wenyipipingzuoweiyizhongteshuxingtaidewenyibiaoda,yeliyingyouzheizhonggexingtezheng,jisuoweidewenyipipingfengge。wenyipipingfenggezhideshiwenyipipingjiazaijutidewenyizuopinchanshihejieduguochengzhong,xingchengduizuopinzhuti、renwuxingxiang、yuyanbiaoda、biaoxianshoufadengfangmiandeteshushenmeipinge,bingjuyouxiangduiwendingxing。zheiyeshiwenyipipingjiazaisixiangxingheyishuxingderongtongyujiangouguochengzhong,chengxianchulaideyizhongzhengtishangxianmingdegexingtezheng。

 

【文艺观潮】  

快3  zaiwenyilingyutanjifengge,yibanlaishuojiangzhishiweiwenyizuopindebiaozhi,shiwenyizuopinsuotixiandedutedegexingtezheng。wenyipipingzuoweiyizhongteshuxingtaidewenyibiaoda,yeliyingyouzheizhonggexingtezheng,jisuoweidewenyipipingfengge。wenyipipingfenggezhideshiwenyipipingjiazaijutidewenyizuopinchanshihejieduguochengzhong,xingchengduizuopinzhuti、renwuxingxiang、yuyanbiaoda、biaoxianshoufadengfangmiandeteshushenmeipinge,bingjuyouxiangduiwendingxing。zheiyeshiwenyipipingjiazaisixiangxingheyishuxingderongtongyujiangouguochengzhong,chengxianchulaideyizhongzhengtishangxianmingdegexingtezheng。

快3 ranerzaidangxiadewenyipipingzhong,xianyouzhenzhengxingchengzijidutefenggedepipingjia。zheijiyouxinshiqiyilaiwenyipipinghuanjingdewenti,yeyoupipingjiazishendewenti,haiyouduipipingfenggedemoshiwenti。xinshiqizhichu,daliangdexifangwenyililunyinruzhongguo,pipingjiahaimeiyouzhenzhengxiaohuazheixielilunfanchou,jiujiangqiyunyongdaopipingshijianzhizhong,qiangzhichanshizaisuonanmian。pipingjiazijizhizhuzhongwenzhangdefabiaoyufou,shifouyoulilunzhicheng,shifoujuyousuoweidexuelixinghexueshuxing,doupaizaiqici。pipingjiazhutiyishiyanzhongquewei,suoweipipingfenggeconghetanqi?zhongguogudaiwenyipipingfeichangzhongshipipingfengge,keyishuo“yibuzhongguogudaiwenlunshijihujiushipipingshi,yibuzhongguogudaipipingshiyoujihushiduiwenxuefenggedepipingshi”。

  tongyigeshidai,jiyubutongdeguojiaheminzuwenhuayujing,ziranyehuixingchengbuyiyangdepipingfengge。chengruluxunxianshengsuoyan,pipingzhiyoudechidu“youyingguomeiguochi,youdeguochi,youeguochi,youribenchi,ziranyouyouzhongguochi”。butongdeguojia,wenyipipingdechidubuyiyang,wenyipipingfenggeyeyousuoqubie。

  zaidangqianshidaibeijingxia,wenyipipingruhewohaozheiyiba“zhongguochi”?duizheigewentijinxingtaolunheyanjiu,youliyuxingchengfuyoutesedepipingfengge,duidangdaiwenyichuangzuohedangdaiwenyipipingdeliangxingfazhandayoubiyi。

“因事而异”“因时而异”: 文艺批评风格的时代印迹

  yigeshidaiyouyigeshidaidewenyi,yigeshidaiyeyouyigeshidaidewenyipiping。shehuiyujingheshidaibeijingbukebimiandiyingxiangzhepipingjiadesixiang,shenzhiyingxiangdaoduiwenyizuopindepanduanhebawo。zheishijishangyejiushiluxunxianshengsuoshuodefenggehui“yinshieryi”“yinshieryi”。shidai、shehuihezhengzhiyinsuduiwenyipipingyouzhezhongyaodeyingxiang,xingchengwenyipipingyixiepubianxing、quntixing、gongxingdedongxi。zheixiegongtongdedongxiwangwangshengchengyigeshidaidepipingfengge。yigeyouxiudepipingjia,bujinyaoxuehuizaigujinzhongwaidewenyishijiezhongjiquyingyang,haiyaoshunyingshidaifazhanbianhuadeyaoqiu,fanyingshidaideshehuisichaohewenyisichao。

  guanyuwenyipipingdeshidaiyujingwenti,zhongguogurenzaojiushuoguo: “zhishizhiyinanyile,qizhenghe;luanshizhiyinyuanyinu,qizhengguai;wangguozhiyinaiyisi,qiminkun。shengyinzhidao,yuzhengtongyi。”zheishijishangshuodejiushiyinleyuzhengzhi、shehuizhijiandejinmiguanxi,yeyunhanzhewenyipipingheshidaidemiqieguanxi。pipingjiabukenengchaoyuetadeshidai,pipingfachudeshishidaideshengyin。pipingjiayinggaiyiyizhongsixiangdezijuezhimianshidaidewenyiwenti,fachuzijiduishenghuodelijie、duishijiedekanfa、duishidaideshenmeirenzhi。luxunsuoshuodefengge“yinshieryi”“yinshieryi”,shijishangzhidejiushishidaiheshehuihuanjingduipipingjiafenggedesuzaoyouzhezhongyaodeyiyi。

快3  dangqian,zhongguoteseshehuizhuyijinruxinshidai。wenyipipinggongzuozheyinggaishenruxuexilinghuixijinpingxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyisixiang,youqishishenruxuexilinghuixijinpingzongshujizaiwenyigongzuozuotanhuishangdezhongyaojianghua,zaizhongguowenlianshida、zhongguozuoxiejiudakaimushishangdezhongyaojianghua,shenkebawohaodangjinshidaitezheng、zhonghuayouxiuchuantongwenhuaxiandaizhuanhuanhesixiangyanjiuzishenyanjinqushizheisangeyujing,duishehuizhuyiwenyiderenminxingxianjinxingwenti,duimakesizhuyizhexueyuzhonghuayouxiuchuantongwenhuadeshencengqihewenti,duidangdaimakesizhuyiwenyixueyanjiufangshidechuangxinwentidengjinxingshenruerquanmiandexueshusikaoyuliluntansuo。zhiyouzheiyang,cainengshixianzijidexueshuyanjiu、lilunchuangzaoyushidaifengchaotongpingongzhen,youliyukaituofuyoushidaitesehexianmingshidaifenggedewenyipipingxinjumian。

“风格即人”: 批评家的风格是他内心生活的准确标志

  haodepipingwenzhang,rangrenduqilairuyinganquan,jiyouwenzibenshendeyueduxiangshou,youyouduizuopinyiyixindefaxianyuxindeshouhuo。wenyipipingjiangjiuxuelixing,yaozhuzhongzuopinbenshen,yaoyilifuren。wenyipipingjiatongguoduiwenyizuopindefenxihechanshi,chuandachuzijiduizuopindegexinghualijie,chuandachuzijiduizuopinyunhandeshehuirenshengzhutidejiazhipingpan,tongshiyechuandachuzijideshenmeilixianghejiazhiguannian。wenyipipingdezheiyibenzhisuqiu,rangpipingbenshengengduodiguanzhupipingduixiang、renwu、fangfahefanchou,erhulvelepipingduixiangdewentitezhenghemeixuejiazhi。

  yalishiduodezaitaolunfenggeshishuo: “yuyandezhunquexing,shiyouliangfenggedejichu。”wenyipipingshiyuyandeyishu,zheijiuyaoqiupipingjiadepipingyuyanyaoshengdong,yaoyoubiaoxianli,yaofuyoushengmingzhigan,yaoyoushihuayiwei。bufengjichengbingfazhanleyalishiduodedezheiyiguandian,tichule“fenggejiren”delunduan。gedeshoubufengdeyingxiang,zhichu“fenggeshiyishusuonengqijidezuigaojingjie”,bingrenwei“yigezuojiadefenggeshitadeneixinshenghuodezhunquebiaozhi”。shishishang,yigepipingjiadefenggeyeshipipingsuonengqijidezuigaojingjie,shitadeneixinshenghuodezhunquebiaozhi。makesigengshiyiyuzhongde,renweifenggeshigouchengzuojia“jingshengetixingdexingshi”。

  zhongguogudaiwenlunduifenggedebiaodayehenchongfen。gehongzai《baopozi》zhongshuo: “shiyouxingjigaojian,fenggejunqiao,xiaoaoyanjian,lingchaimansu,busujiankuo,buhuxiaoshi,shiqinglvyi,pangruowuren。”renwuwaizaidefengduyuyanxing,shineizaidaode、qingcao、pinxingdemeixuechengxian。liuxieyiyoufengge“bati”zhishuo,jidianya、yuanao、jingyue、xianfu、fanru、zhuangli、xinqi、qingmi。sikongtuzai《ershisishipin》jiangfenggejinyibuleixinghua,guinaweixionghun、chongdan、xiannong、chenzhe、gaogu、dianya、xilian、jingjian、qili、ziran、hanxu、haofang、jingshen、zhenmi、shuye、qingqi、weiqu、shijing、beikai、xingrong、chaoyi、piaoyi、kuangda、liudongdengershisilei。cuirong《tangchaoxindingshige》you“zhiqi、qingqie、qingli”dengshiti,wangchangling《shige》tichu“shiyoujiuge”zhishuo,yijijiaoran《shishi》“shijiuzi”fenggeliluntixi。

  zaizhongguodangdaiwenyipipingzhong,zheizhongshihuadefenggejiaoweixianjian,ergengduodeshiyixifangdewenyililun、gainian、fanchou、shuyu,lailunshu、chanshihejieduzhongguodangdaiwenyizuopinyudangxiawenyisichao。zheishisuoweixueyuanpaipipingdegongtongtedian。yezhengyinweiruci,dangdaiwenyipipingdatongxiaoyi,quefafenggexianmingdepipingjia。

  youbiyaotichangjiangwenyipipingheyanjiuduixiangyoujironghe,zhenzhengzuodao“fenggejiren”,congercuishengchugexingxianming、fenggezhuoyidepipingwenbenhepipingjia。zheiyangdepipingwenbencaishixianhuode、jiediqide、youjiazhide,zheiyangdepipingjiacaichengdeshangshizhenzhengdepipingjia。

“独特性”“多样性”: 文艺批评风格的辩证法则

快3  wenyipipingfenggeshidutede、duoyangde。wenyipipingfenggededutexingzaiyuwenyipipingshigetideshiqing,shigetiziranerrandeqingganbiaolu。meigepipingjiadouyouzijidulidejingshengexing。zheinangkuolepipingjiadeshijieguan、renshengguan、jiazhiguan,yijisixiangpinge、daodeqingcao、qizhibingxing、xueyangxueshi、meixuequwei,shenzhigerenrenshengjiyudeng。zheixieweidugongtongzuoyongzaizuojiashenshang,yingxiangpipingjiapipingfenggedeshengchenghewanshan。

  dangran,congzuijibendebiaoxiancengmianlaijiang,pipingjiadejingshengexing,huozheshuoshipipingfengge,zhijiehuozhejianjieyingxiangzhepipingduixiangdexuanze、pipingshijiaodequeli,yijipipingdeshehuizhengzhipanduan、shenmeijiazhipanduanhedaodejiazhipanduan。zheishijishangyeyinzhenglemakesideyigeguandian,jiyishufenggejuedingyuyishujiadejingshengexing。tongyang,pipingfenggejuedingyupipingjiadejingshengexing。fenggeshiwenyijia、pipingjiajingshenmianmaoyujingshengexingdeziyoubiaolu。yincishuo,pipingjiushipipingjiazhuguanganshoudezhenqiebiaoda,shipipingjiazijizhenshideyueduganshou,shiduizheizhongyueduganshou、shenmeizhiqudejieduhechanshi。pipingzongshicongpipingjiachufa,shipipingjiadeyizhongjingshenchuangzao,shipipingjiazhudongjierushehuiwenhuadebiaozheng。

快3  yezhengshizaizheigeyiyishang,kuai3cainenglijieshencongwensuoweide“chedideduduan”。shishishang,shencongwende“duduan”jianlizaigongzheng、kuanrong、keguandejichuzhishang。shencongwenlijieyudafu“kumenzhiwaidekumen”,kendingtazhongyuzijidezuichunjingdechengjiu,dantazhiyanbuhuidizhichuyudafutuolishidaidezhongdaquexian。shencongwenshizhenshide,yeshiyouzhezhenqingshigande,dantatongshiyejianchizhenli,yishuyulixingdeguangmangzhouranshanliang。

  meigepipingjiaduishenghuodelijie、duishijiedekanfa、duishidaideshenmeirenzhidoushiyouqubiede。zheiyejiukeguanshangxingchenglebutongdewenyipipingfengge。zaizhongguogudaiwenxuepipingshishang,liuxie《wenxindiaolong》depianwenpupai、fenggehongda、cizhanghuamei、qishibangbo,sikongtu《ershisishipin》yishiweiwen、yanjianyiyuan、gediaoqingyi,baijuyi《yuyuanjiushu》ziranqinqie、qingzhisuozhi、miaoweizixun,hanyu《songmengdongyexu》yancizhenqie、liquzhenmi、yanjinzhuangzhong,yijiwangguowei、jinshengtan、zhangzhupo、yanzhizhai、liangqichao、luxun、hushi、juqiubai、maodun,dengdeng,douweizhongguowenyipipingdefenggeduoyangxingtigonglexueliyiju。dangjinwenyipipingjiajiuyinggaizhuiqiuyizhonggexingxianmingdepipingfengge,zhuiqiuwending、kekaodepipingfengge。dangran,pipingjiawendingdepipingfenggeshixiangduide,erpipingfenggedebianhuazeshijueduide。meiyouyigepipingjiasuoyoudepipingwenzhangdoushiyigefengge,fouzezheigepipingjiadepipingshengmingyejiuyiweizheyaojieshule。

  zongzhi,jintiandewenyipipingjixiangduichengshu,youbingxiangcongsheng。wenyipipingfenggezaililunziqiadesiweimoshixia,yuelaiyuequyutongyihua,erruhegenzhizheiyiwentijiguanxidaowenyichuangzuodeweilai,yeguanxidaowenyipipingdefanrong。wenyipipinglibukaishidai,douhui“yinshi”“yinshi”eryi,wenyipipingfenggeyouzheshidaidegexingtesehexianmingluoyin。kuai3cong“fenggejiren”dejiaodusikaowenyipipingheduixiangdeyoujironghe,shitucongwenyipipinghepipingduixiangdetonggouzhongtuxianchupipingfenggedeyiyihejiazhi。wenyipipingfenggejiyouzhemingxiandedutexing,youjuyouduoyangxing,shidutexingheduoyangxingdebianzhengtongyi。

  (作者: 韩伟,系西安外国语大学中国语言文学学院院长)

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