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中国文学网

宋代家族与文学【第二章】

张剑

第二章 天分、寿夭、婚姻与迁徙

duiyuyizhongwenhuaxianxiangdechanshi,keyiyoubutongtujing,anzhaopanguangdanxianshengdeyijianhejinhuaguochengyoudidaogao,shijianyouyuanzhijindeshunxu,keyipailiewei: wujide(rudilidehuoziranhuanjingdejieshi),youjide(rushengwuxuehezhongzuxuedejieshi),xinlide(zhuyaozhiweijinglilungaikuodejiaoweiyuanshidedazhongxintai),shehuide(zhizhengzhi、jingji、wenhuadengjutishehuihuodong、zhidukuai3、xingweixiguandeng),wenhuazishende(zhijingguolilunshenghuadeshehuiyishixingtai)。[1]panxianshengrenweiyongshehuideyuanyinyuxinlideyuanyinjieshiwenhua,guranfangbian,“yinweitamenyuwenhuaxianxiangzuijiejin,yaoliyongtamendeshililaizuoyouwenhua,yehenrongyi,yeshiyinweibicijiejindeguanxi。danshizheizhongjieshi,zheizhongrenlidezhipeibijiaoyaoqueshaojibenxingyugudingxing。lirugaibianshehuizuzhi,tichangjiaoyu,zirankeyijiaowenhuayouyidudexingfen,danshiyaoshicongmingcaizhidechengduyouxian,zheizhongxingfenshibuhuichijiude。fanguolai,lihuadexianxiangziranshizuijibendele,danshitamenbijiaodezuibushourenlidezuoyou,handaideqileng,redaidekure,ribendedizhen,zhongguoxibeifangdeshamohua,shijueduimeiyouduodabanfade,renleishenghuozhiyouqianjiutamen,hennanjiaotamenlaiqianjiurenlei。zaiyiqiexianxiangzhizhong,nenggoubijiaoshourenlidezhuanyide,tongshiyejuyouchongfendejibenxingde,shishengwuxuedexianxiang。”zaipanxianshengkanlai,“suoweishengwudeyuanyinyousan: yishibianyi,ershiyichuan,sanshixuanzehuotaotai。xuanzeyouliangzhong,yinleziranshilierfashengdejiaozuoziranxuanze,yinleshehuiyuwenhuashilierfashengdejiaozuowenhuaxuanze。xuanzesuoyoufashengdetujingyousan: yishishengchan,ershihunyin,sanshisiwang。ruxianyumouyidifanghuoshidaishuohua,kuai3haikeyijiashangyigedisigetujing,jiushirenkoudeliudonghuoyizhi。”[2]dantatongshirenwei,zaisuoyoudejieshitujingzhong,zhongguowenhuajieduiyushengwuxuedejieshishizuiweimoshide。youjianyuci,taliyongshengwuyichuanxuezhongdeyouguanlilun,duizhongguoshehuiwenhuazuoleguangfaneryoukaituoxingdeyanjiu,tade《zhongguolingrenxueyuanzhiyanjiu》(shangwuyinshuguan1941nianchuban)、《mingqingliangdaijiaxingdewangzu》(shangwuyinshuguan1947nianchuban)doushiyunyongshengwuyichuanyanguangguanchazhongguorencaidekaishanzhizuo。suiranduipanxianshengdeyixielilunkuai3chiyoubaoliudetaidu,dantazhuzhongcongyichuan、hunyin、siwangjirenkouliudongdengshengwuxuejiaoduchufatantaowentiquejikuai3deyanjiutigongleyouyideqishi。

一 信乎其家多异才

xiandaiyichuanxueyanjiuchengguobiaoming: “zairenleizhong,dequecunzaizhezhinengdengfangmiandechabie,zheizhongchabieshizhiyigerenbutongyutarendedutedeneizaiyinsu,tajifanyingshehuishenghuodehuanjingyingxiang,youxianshilexiantianyichuansuzhi。shizhishang,xiangzhinengdeyichuanwenti,juedingyuyichuanhehuanjinglianggeyinsudexianghuzuoyong。”[3]dankuai3deyanjiujiesikaowentishiquecunzaiguoyuzhuzhonghoutianhuanjingdeyinsu,ruzhengzhidiwei、jingjizhuangkuang、jiaoyupeiyangdeng,xiangduihulvelexiantiandeyichuansuzhi。jiruchaoshijiazu,ruguoxiantianzhinengyouxian,jiushizaihaodejiaoyuhuanjingyehennanzaijingzhengriqujiliedesongdaikejuzhongzhangqiliyububaizhidi。

yinggaichengren,chaoshizidipubianxianluchugaozhishangdeqingxiang。“zong”zibeizongque“yixicaojiangxiangwuzhi,baoyangxunjie,rendesuoyi”(《songshi》benchuan),keweiwensiminjie。“zhong”zibeizhongyan“zishiminwu,fangzongjiaoshi,yiziruchengren。”[4]zhongxun“shengeryiquner,chuyanshenda,ziweibinengyouchengzhe,nianshiyouwu,congqixiongchengjizhoutaiheshi,huangluzhizhixianshi,yijiangongqizhi,qichujianjibie,jieyoushi,erchangheyuqizhongjianzhe,zeduoyi。youyun: ‘tanjunhaoshenyitianjian’youyun: ‘jianjunyoujiafeng,huaibaorubingqing。’”(《jingyushengji》juanshijiu《songrenchengchaogongmubiao》)“duan”zibeiduanren“ertongzhixuewenruchengren,tong《yi》、《chunqiu》、dongdashiwu,youmiaoyucifu。”(《jileiji》juanliushiqi《chaoqingdafuzhishichaogongmuzhiming》)“duanbingdashou,shaoyi《zhirenzebailiaorenzhifu》weikaifengfujietou,dashouweiwenminergong。yuwangyuyuweibiaozhi,yuyuneiji,jiushuxingerougongxiezhishiqishizhi,yuyufajiankan,chengmeibuyi。weidashouyue: ‘xuyiyiqidazhi。citimushenhao,feijiugebunengzuoye。’dashoulvebucirang,jiuba,fangchuocha,qiyichengyi。yuyujingqisu,suikuayuzuoren,eryizhongbule。”(《quweijiuwen》juanwu)《jileiji》juanliushisan《jimojushichaojunmubiao》yejizai: “(duanbing)qisui,qijingguochangerjueyuan,jianerming,wenershi,……xiningzhong,yubuzhitongshikaifeng,changzanchuyeke,kebijianshikehexuqianyan,gaishouzhaocishichenzhe。jushiyue: nengyizaiguosonghu?zejumodu。jushiyue: songyi。mouyue: yisongyi。xiesong,xiezhi,erjushijinxi,buzhiyierziyan。”chaoduanzhong“shengjingwuhaoshu,shisuinengweigushi。”(《jileiji》juanliushiba《xiongzhoufangyutuiguanchaojunmuzhiming》)“zhi”zibeibuzhi“youhaomai,yingshuangbuqun,qisuinengshuwen,risongqianyan。……gongyuwenzhang,gaiqitianxing,dushubuguoyizai,zhongshenbuwang。”(zhanglei《chaowujiumuzhiming》)chaoshuozhinianweisanshierwujingli,chaoyongzhishaoyouyicai,“ziminqiangji,lan《hanshu》wuxingjuxia。duihuangjuandake,xiaoyuzhongri,ruobujingyi,jiyanjuanlungurenxingshibenmoshizhong,ruyuzhitongshizhe。dongpozuo《wengongshendaobei》,laifangqicongxiongbuzhiwujiuyuzhaodedi。zuoweiding,ziyan: ‘wujinrileciwen,fubenrenweijianye。’chuochaba,dongpolangranjuqiwenyibian,qijianyoushuyinbufenmingzhe,wujiulveshenqizi,shizhidaocongzhaobihouyitingdeyi。dongpoqu,wujiufangyujushizuren,erzhidaoyigaoshengsong,wuyiziyizhe。wujiuchusibule,jiuzhi,yue: ‘shierlang,zhenwujiaqianlijuye。’”(《quweijiuwen》juansan)dongpotanweiqicai。chaozaizhinianweiershijijianshangyuhuangtingjian,tingjianjiangzhijianyusushi,sushidayun: “chaoboyushisao,xikanshenqili,xinhuqijiaduoyicaiye。”(《junzhaidushuzhi》)weizhi、huanzhi,youqijing,“wangwangjianchengyudongpozhugong。”(《jingyushengji》juanshijiu《songyinzhangzimubiao》)chongzhi“yuzongzuzuicaihua。”(《junzhaidushuzhi》)“gongzibei”zhong,chaogongmai“shaoyiwenxuecheng,ziqizhufujingyu、jucixianshengjietanyuzhi,zhugongguirenyiwangwangwenqiming。”(《weinanwenji》juanshisi《chaobojiushijixu》)chaogongshou“shaodunpangyouchengrenzhiqixiang,fangnianshisansi,sitingyouxing,duodegushuhuayigui,changxinranshiyuyue: shibeiqiyangzihuakanshutuzhongyifuye。boguzheyanzhi,youxin。”(《jingyushengji》juanshijiu《songyinzhangzimubiao》)chaogonge“zibingbufan,shaochengjiafa。”(louyao《gongkuiji》juanyibaiba《sifachaojunmuzhiming》)chaogongwu、chaogongsuyeyiwenxuecaiganzhiming。“zi”zibeizhongchaoziyunianguobashishang“ermucongming,bizhajingkai”(zhoubida《wenzhongji》juanqishiwu《digonglangzhishichaoziyumuzhiming》)。“bai”zibeizhongchaobaigu“shengshinian,yiyouchengrenfeng”(《wenzhongji》juanershi《chaobaiguzixu》),“funianershi,bilikangding”(luyou《weinanwenji》juanershiqi《bachaobaiguzixu》)。

congzhongkuai3bunankandaochaoshizurenlingwulichaoqun、jiyilibufan、wenyijianshangliguoren,zuizhongyaodeshitamenjubeichaochangde、lingrenzantandewenhuacaineng,youqishiyouhaojiweiqisui、shisuijiujuyouchuangzuoshifudecaihua,zheizhongwenxuenengliyuqishuolaiziyuhoutianpeiyang,wuningshuolaiziyuxiantiandejiazuyichuan,yincisushicaizantanshuo“xinhuqijiaduoyicaiye。”

zaiyueduyixiewenhuashijiaxiangguandechuanjicailiaoshi,kuai3yechangjingyayubushaoshijiachengyuanminjieeryouyidewenhuatianfu,rumeizhousushijiazu,suxuwenhuachengdubugao,dan“wanhaoweishi,nengzidao,minjielicheng,buqiushengong”(《benji·sutingpingxingzhuang》)。suxunnianjinerlishifafendushu,“suitongliujing、baijiazhishuo,xiabiqingkeshuqianyan”(《songshi》benchuan)。sushisuzhexiongdidecaisiminjiewuyiyeyouqizuqifudewenxueyichuanyinsuzaiqizhong。

xiangyangmishijiazuzhong,mifei“shengeryingxiu,liusuiridulvshibaishou,guomujichengsong”(《jingkouqijiuchuan》juaner)。qizimiyourenxiaozihuer,younianshihuangtingjianjizengshizanqiwei“huerbilinengkangding”(《xizengmiyuanzhangershou》qier),cenghaoyiyanqi“shaojunzaocheng”(《yunguzaji》juansan)。

langzhongchenshijiazu,chenshenghuabenren“zhibianyouligan”(《songshi》juanerbaibashisi),qizhangziyaosouzhongtaizongduangongernianzhuangyuan,jiziyaozizhongzhenzongxianpingsannianzhuangyuan,ciziyaozuoduangongyuannianjinshijidi,suiweizhongzhuangyuan,ranyusanxiongdizhongzuiyinghui,“shaohaoxue,fushouzhuzijing,qixiongweizuye,yaozuoqieting,sichengsong。”(《songshi》benchuan)

sichuanpujianggaoshijiazuzhong,gaoxiaoshugongyouliuzi,gaozai(jiataiernianjinshi)、gaojia(jiadingqinianjinshi)、gaochong(jiadingqinianjinshi)、gaodingzi(jiataiernianjinshi)、weileweng(qingyuanwunianjinshi,gaoxiaoshubenxingwei,yuweishixingweiqinxiongdi,yinweilewengzumugaoshizhixionggaohuangzhongwuzi,xiaoshusuiguojiweizi,houyinweishixingwuzi,weilewengyouhaijishixing)、gaomao(shengpingbuxiang),xiongdiliurenwujinshi,qieduoconghui,rugaozai“ziweiershi,yingyiyuechang,basuinengshuwen”(《heshanji》juanbashiba《zhilingquanxianfengyilangzhishigaojunzaixingzhuang》),gaochong“youyingwu”(《heshanji》juanbashiba《zhilizhoujianguanneianfugaogongchongxingzhuang》),gaojiayijianzhendexiu,dexiujiyi“guoshiqizhi”(《songshi》gaojiabenchuan),gaodingziweileweng“yingwujuechu,risongqianyuyan,guomubuzailan”(《songshi》benchuan)。

qitaxianglinchuaneryan、xinyuerliu、qingjiangsankong、gaoyousanqin、poyangsihong、shuangjinghuangshidengsongdaizhumingdewenhuashijia,jiazuchengyuandezaohuihuozhiliyouyidexianxiangpoweipubian,tamenchengweisongdaijiazuwenhuadeyijichengfayangdezhongyaotiaojian,chaoshijiazu,buguoshiqizhongjuyoudaibiaoxingdelizibale。

二 从《积善堂记》说起

daguanyuannian,chaoshixijuanchaozongyuanfurenhuangshi(1067—1107hou)jiushiyigaoshou,huangshidisizizhongxunyuqixiongzhongmouyiliqingfeng,zhiyue: “huangshiyunrenjishan,xiangyoumaoling,keshouguangxiantaijun。”zurenxiangdang,zuotangyifengfuren,mingzhiyuejishantang,chaobuzhizuo《jishanshiji》yijizhi。sishichaoshizurenzhichaojiongerxia,yidaliushiwubaikou。

ruguokuai3jiangyanguangtouxiangqitachaoshijiaren,jiuhuifaxianzhangshouzhejuefeihuangshiyiren,zijiangchaoshirenwuzhiqishengzunianzhe[5]jianlieruxia:

diyidai: chaoquan(916—998),83sui。

dierdai: chaojiong*(951—1034),84sui。

chaogouqizhangshi(983—1069),87sui。

disandai: chaozongque*(985—1042),58sui。

chaozongke(1007—1069),63sui。

chaozongyuanqihuangshi(1016—1107hou),zhishao91sui。

disidai: chaozhongcan(1013—1067),55sui。

chaozhongcanqigongsunshi(1010—1086),77sui。

chaozhongyan(1012—1053),42sui。

chaozhongxi(1019—1086),68sui。

chaozhongxun(1057—1115),59sui。

chaozhongyuqidishi(1001—1069),69sui。

diwudai: chaoduanyou(1029—1075),47sui。

chaoduanyouqiyangshi(1031—1098),68sui。

chaoduanbenqiyanshi(1039—1103),65sui。

chaoduanzhong(1051—1100),50sui。

chaoduanren(1035—1102),68sui。

chaoduanrenqiyeshi(1034—1080),47sui。

chaoduanli(1046—1113),68sui。

chaoduanyan(1035—1095),61sui。

chaoduanbing(1045—1090),46sui。

diliudai: chaobuzhi(1053—1110),58sui。

chaosunzhi(1059—1122),64sui。

chaoshuozhi*(1059—1129),71sui。

chaoyongzhi(1066—1117),52sui。

chaochongzhi(1073—1126),54sui。

chaoqianzhi*(1090—1154),65sui。

diqidai: chaogongwu*(yue1106—yue1184qian),yue78sui。

chaogonge(1105—1165),61sui。

chaogongxuan(1135—1189),55sui。

chaogongshou(1085—1107),23sui。

chaogongmai(1091—1146),56sui。

chaogongsu(1116—yue1176),yue61sui。[6]

dibadai: chaozijian*(1107—1177hou),zhishao71sui。

chaoziyu(1114—1201),88sui。

dijiudai: chaobaitan(yue1145—yue1214),yue70sui。

yishanggongtongjichaoshijiazurenwu36ren,pingjunshoumingyue62suiqiang,zheigeshuzizaisongdaikeyisuanzuoshizhangshoujiazule。tebieshijiweiguanzhigaoweiderenwu(dai*zhe),duoxianggaonian。chaojiong(84sui)shengqianguanzhihanlinxueshichengzhi,taizishaobao;chaozongque(58sui)shengqianguanzhicanzhizhengshi;chaoshuozhi(71sui)shengqianguanzhizhongshusheren、huiyougedaizhi;chaoqianzhi(65sui)shengqianguanzhifuwengezhixueshizhijiankangfu;chaogongwu(yue78sui)shengqianguanzhilibushilang、linanfushaoyin。zheiduizhenggechaoshijiazudefazhanqidaolefeichangzhongyaodezuoyong。yaozhidao,jiazuzhongrenhaoburongyimoudegongming,jianzhixiangui,keyifengqizi、yinzongzu,zhigaoweizhexianggaonian,duizongzuyinbudejihuijiuziranzengjialexuduo,youliyubaochimendi。ruchaojiong“yanyinjidizhizhisun,buhuangjuzai。”(《fazangsuijinlu》juanqi)chaozongquejiyinfuyinrushi,zhongzhicanzhizhengshi,erzongque“fanrenzien,jiexianqizuren。”(《songshi》juansanbaiwuzongquechuan)qizuhouyouyinzongzuqiren。chaoshizurenkedirushizheguduo,yinburushizheyibuzaishaoshu。lingwai,jiazuzhongrenjishengaowei,haikeyibangzhuzhenggejiazuzengqiangdikangyiwaihekunnandenengli。nanduhouchaoshizurenshengcunjiongpo,jiuduokuichaoqianzhijinlishoufubangzhu,shijiazubuzhixingsanyinmei。

xianzairangkuai3laikanyigexiangfandelizi: ruyang(jinhenanrunan)sunshi,sunhe、sunjinliangxiongdixiangjizhuangyuanjidi,xiaodisunyouyidengjinshike,bukeweiqimenburongyao。sunhe(961—1004)shisuishiyinyun,shiwunengshuwen,weibuyishi,suozhu《liangjinmingchenzan》、《chunqiuyi》、《zunrujiaoyi》jishigeershiyupianjiguangweiliuchuan,yudingweiqiming,haowei“sun、ding”。《songshijishi》zai: “dingweiyusunhe,biankebaiyixiuzhuan。”shendewangyuchengqizhong。chunhuasannianjinshidiyi,ceng“yuchaojiong、chenyaozibingmingzhizhigao,cijinzi,zhangsanbanyuan”(《songshi》benchuan),weiwenqufahanliu,changdaoguwen,zaiwentanshenyouyingxiang,danzhihuole44sui。sunjin(969—1017),xuexingwenci,qingdongyishi,weidishiwangyuchengcenglanqiwenji《gantangji》,fu《shusunjin〈gantangji〉hou》shiyun: “mingnianzaijiuyaojieshi,yingbeirenhuxiaozhuangyuan。”(《xiaochuji》juanjiu,yijian《mianshuiyantanlu》juansan)bishiankansunjinwenjiweibi,jijingtan“hesilaofuyi!”tuixushenli。(《xiaochuji》juanershijiu《dianzhongchengzenghubuyuanwailangsunfujunmuzhiming》)sunjinxianpingyuannianguozhongjinshidiyi,yicengzhizhigao,houweijixiandianxueshiquanzhikaifengfudeng,guanzhongjishizhong。dantazhihuole49sui。youdisunyou(972—1017),xiuyushi,xianpingsannianzhongjinshi,zushinian46sui。yinci,dangsunshisanxiongdizhishi,qimingshengyingxiangshigaiguochaoshijiazude,wangyuchengzanwei“fusanziyi,qizhiwenxuezhichurenyi,youjiangfuguizhibishenye。”(《dianzhongchengzenghubuyuanwailangsunfujunmuzhiming》)hanqizanwei: “tianxiasongmu,jieyongsunshiweidaxiaozhuangyuanjia,zhiyufuxiongzhixunzisun,bijusunshiyiweiquan,weihenqibujiye。”(《anyangji》juansishiqi《gutaichangboshitongpanyingtianfuzengguanglushaoqingsungongmuzhiming》)keshiyouyusunhexiongdidebushou,shengzibufan,ju《songshi》benchuanjihanqi《gutaichangboshitongpanyingtianfuzengguanglushaoqingsungongmuzhiming》zai,sunhezhiyouyizisunyan,sunjinyezhiyouyizisunhe,sunyouqingkuangshaohaoyixie,youzierren,sunxian、sunzhou,nvsiren(qizhongliangrenziyouweini),sunnanwuren,sunnvwuren,zongtishangmentingshidanbode,yincisunshijiazushudaizhihou,jishuaibaibuwenyi。

zailaikanyuruyangsunshitongzhongyouyideyanquansushijiazu,sushijiazusuirankesuanguanhuanzhijia,dansuyijianzhiqian,jieweiweiguan,guangdasushimenmeideshisuyijian(958—996)。yijian23suizhongjinshi,29suishenghanlinxueshi,34suiqianzhongshusheren,chonghanlinxueshichengzhi,36suiweijishizhong、canzhizhengshi,keweichunfengdeyi。danta39suijiyinxujiushenwang。suyijianliuxiasizi,sushou、suqi、susu、susou,desuyijianyuyin,jieshouguanzhi,mingquezhiqishengzuniandeshisuqihesusou。suqi(987—1035)sanzisannv,susou(993—1037)wuzi,weiyouyinv,suiwuhou。suqisanzishunyuan(1006—1054)、shunqin(1008—1048)、shunbin,jiezhongjinshi。shunbinzaozu,shunyuanzushiyouqiziliangnv,sunnan、sunnvgeshisanren,cengsunnanqiren,cengsunnvwuren。shunqinshizhumingwenxuejia,yousanziliangnv。qihousujiaqingkuangwucongkaozhi。juzhangbangweixianshengtongji,sushinanxingkekaozheshoumingjunbuzhang,suyijian39sui,suqi49sui,susou45sui,sushunyuan49sui,sushunqin41sui[7]。zheibunengbushuoshiyingxiangsushijiazufazhandeyigehendadejuxian。dansushijiazubiruyangsunshimianyanyaojiaojiuyuan,qizhongzhuyaoyuanyinzhiyishiyinweisunshihoudairendingbuwang,ersushijiazuxiangduieryanduoziduosun,sushunqinjiucengziyanjiaren“baikou”(《suxueshiji》juanjiu《shangsansifushiduangongshu》)。buguo,yinweijiazuzhongbunengbuduanchuxianrusuyijian、sushunqinneiyangdecaimingzhishi,jiazudeshuailuotongyangbukebimian。

keyiyuyanquansushixianghucanzhaodeshixiangzhou(anyang)hanshijiazu,hanshishidianxingdegaochusheng、gaosiwangdejiazu,fanyue《anyangji》juansishiliuhejuansishijiu,duoshihanqiweiqinrenzhuanxiedemuzhiming,zheizhongganjuefeichangqianglie。rujuansishiliude《zhisunsishangmuji》yun:

yudisizhidalisichengzhengyan,shengziyueguangshou。shizhengyanchushouguanglusicheng,guyimingzhi。yudiwuzhidalisichengfangyan,shengziyuepannu,shiyuziyangzhouxizhiyunzhou,zhoucihuaishangzhimopankou,guyimingzhi。yuzhizhangziguanglusichengzhongyan,shengzierren,zhangyuejinsun,shiyuzhixiangzhou,derenguli,youzhoujinzhirong,guyimingzhi。ciyuemisun,shiyushiweishumishi,guyimingzhi。shisixiaosun,jiezizhuangmeixiu,huierkeai,huojinnengxingli,huoweimianbaochi,tianhejiangzai,suijubuyu。

zheilizailiehanqixiongdijiqiziliangdainianlingweili。hanqifuhanguohuayouliuzi,hanqiu(34suizu,zier,weizaowang,gongyan52suizu)、hanxuan(27suizu,weiqu)、hanju(52suizu,zhangzijingrongzunian17,cifangyanzunianbuxiang,cizhiyan25suizu,cixiaoyanzunianbuxiang)、hanchong(27suizu,wuzi)、hanqu(41suizu,yizizhengyan,zunianbuxiang)hehanqi(68suizu)。erzuoweisanchaozaixiang、dingceyuanxundehanqi(1008—1075),youziliuren,zhongyan(72suizu)、duanyan(zunianbuxiang)、liangyan(zaoyao)、chunyan(zushibushaoyu58sui)、cuiyan(54suizu)、jiayan(jianyansannianzu,yue60yusui),sun、cengsungeershiyuren。liuxiongdizhong,hanqiyizhishouzuizhang,guanzuigao,zisunzuiduo,eryoudaiyouxianhuan,hanqi、hanzhongyan、hantuozhou(jiayanzhisun)xianhoubaixiang,gumendizuixingwang。luyougantanshuo: “yuzhongxian(hanqi)tongshigongmingfuguilvexiangliezheqiwuqiren?jinbaisi、wushinian,qihouwangwangjiliaowuwen,hanshizisun,gongzuyimingyiding、beixiangezhe,duxiangzhongye。”(《weinanwenji》zhi《fangwengyigao》juanshang《nanyuanji》)

chaoshijiazuduoyiwenxuezhiming,shizhumingdewenxueshijia;erhanshiduogaoguan,shizhumingdezhengzhishijia。danbuguanzenyang,jiazuchengyuanduozhangshou、duozisun、luxuchuxianyoudiwei、youmingwangzhishi,zeshiyigejiazunenggouzhangjiuxingshengdezhongyaojichu。

三 才婿贤妇

tanjisongrendehunyinguan,zuiweiliuxingdeguandianmoguoyunansongzhengqiaosuoyun: “ziwujiyilai,qushibuwenjiashi,hunyinbuwenfayue。”(《tongzhi》juanershiwu《shizulvediyi》)danzheizhishiyigefoudingjushidepaichufa,“buwenfayue”wenshenme?kuai3haishigenjuchaoshiyizudejiaquqingkuangzuojutidefenxi。

(yi)chaoshiqizuyoujiashihuocaixingkekaozheruxia:

(1)chaodizhi

chaogouqi,zhangshi,jizhoujuyeren,“weirenrenhouzhuangjing,ziweinvjijijia,chuneiwaiqin,zunbeizhangyou,qinshuzhiji,wubudangyulierenchengzhi。”( cenggong《yuanfengleigao》juansishiwu《shouanxiantaijunzhangshimuzhiming》)

chaozhongcanqi,gongsunshi(1010—1086),qixianzizhouqiren,houxidizhoushanghe,shidaiguanhuan,qifugongsunjianguanmishucheng,zhiliangyouwen,qimuchangshiyouxiancao。gongsunshi“youshenxiangyouweiyi,yanchuruqi,buwangzixiao,renyiweitianzijinli……gongjianjingjie,suyegongshi。”qie“haowenshi,fanlanbujuan”,wanhaowushengzhishuo。(chaobuzhi《jileiji》juanliushier《shouanxiantaijungongsunshixingzhuang》)

chaoduanyouqi,yangshi,jizhourenchengren,fuyangzaoweishangshubibulangzhong。yangshishaojingmo,youliyi,“xingcijian,zhizhiwucaizu。duxinfoshi,song《jingangbanruo》ershiyunian。”xiangfujiaozi,ganyudanbo,xiandeminghui,zhongxiaochuanjia。(duhong《songshouguangxiantaijunyangshimuzhiming》,jian《kaogu》1986niandi9qi《shandongjiaxiangxiandiaoyushanfaxianliangzuosongmu》)

chaoduanrenqi,yeshi(1034—1080),qiantangren(zijinyunqianlai,dangyuyemengdetongzu),fuyenuan、xiongyechangyan、yechanglingjiejujinshi。yeshixijiangnandaxing,furenshunzihuishu,fannvzizhishi,wubugong。(chaobuzhi《jileiji》juanliushisi《yeshimuzhiming》)

chaoduanbenqi,yanshi(1039—1103),jizhoujuyeren,fudeji,danzhousihucanjun。yanshigongjianshouyi,ranjuqizijiebuyu,nvyirenjiaduchunzidukai,youyinchanwang,teweibuxing。(chaobuzhi《jileiji》juanliushiba《yanshimuzhiming》)

chaoduanzhongqi,qianfurenhushi,zhishunengshi。jiqulvqiushi,shushenyiqijia。(chaobuzhi《jileiji》juanliushiba《xiongzhoufangyutuiguanchaojunmuzhiming》)

chaoxunzhiqi,lvqiushi。

chaobuzhiqi,dushi,duchunzhinv(anduchunquchaozhongcancinv,yufanchuncuidenglianjin)。duchunyudiduhong,juweibeisongxianhuan,songshiyouchuan。

chaosunzhiqi,lishi,qizhoujinxiangren,fulizhong,jingdesannianmingjingzhongdi,nansiren,sunshiliuren,duojujinshirushi。(lizhaoqi《lejingji》juanershijiu《ligongshendaobei》)chaosunzhiweierziquwuchounv(《jingyushengji》juanershi《gongqiuxianzhubuchaojun(sunzhi)muzhiming》)。wuchouziziyou,wuyusun,sushimenren,cengrenluzhoujiaoshou,hourudangji。wuyucengrencanzhizhengshi、shumifushi。

chaogongweiqi,renshi,fuguanlongtugexueshi。(《jianyanyilaixinianyaolu》juanliushiwu,chaobuzhi《jileiji》juanwushijiu《gongweiqiuqinqi》)

chaogongxuanqi,chuquxiuwulangzhaoshiyazhinv,zaiqusijianhanguozhinv。(《chaoshijiacheng》juanjiu《songzhenlejushigongxuanmuzhiming》)

(2)chaojiongzhi

chaozongqueqi,wangshi,fengankangjunfuren,wangguizhigu。wangshishizhumingdewenxueshijia。wanggui,ziyuyu,huayangren。renzongqingliernianjinshi,guanzhizaixiang,shiyuewengong。congfuhan,congxiongqijuyouming,《songshi》youchuan。

ling: chaozhongyuqi,wangshi,wangguishufuzhinv。(wanggui《huayangji》juanwuqi《tonganjunjundishi(wangguishumu)muzhiming》)

chaozonghuiqi,shishi,shidandisannv,kedizhijia。shidanweitaipingxingguobanianjinshi,jianshanwenwu,weiduhoucainengzhichen。(wukui《songguchaoqingdafushangshutuntianlangzhongzhilangzhongjunzhoushishanghujunjiezishigongmuzhiming》,jianlixianglin《beisongshidanmuzhizhiwenshijiazhi》,《shandongshidaxuebao》1997niandi2qi)zishunjushexuehaoshi,shaojujinshi,nvbarenjiejiarushishiren。(zhangfangping《lequanji》juansanshijiu《jiangshilangyangzhousifacanjunshifujunmuzhiming》)

ling: chaozhongchuoqi,shishi,shidansunnv,shishunjuzhinv。

chaozongzaoqi,zhaoshi,xianquzhaozhenzhangnv,jiquqidisannv。zhaozhen,jinshi,guanzhitaizishaofu,xianshiyirumingqijia,ziqirenjuweiguan,nvliurenjiejiarushishiren,sunnvbarenjieshishizu。(yinzhu《henanji》juanshisan《gutuichengbaodegongchenjinziguangludafushoutaizishaofuzhishishangzhuguotianshuijunkaiguogongshiyisiqianerbaihushishifengyiqianhuzhaogong(zhen)muzhiming》)

chaozhongyanqi,wangshi。“jixianyuanxiuzhuanzengjianyidafuwanggongzhenzhinv,fengxinganxianjun,xianmingroumu,youguikunzhifan。”(wanggui《chaojunmuzhiming》)houfengyingchuanjunfuren。(chaobuzhi《jileiji》juanliushisan《jimojushichaojunmubiao》)

ling: chaoduanbingqi,wangshi,yingchuanfurenzhizhi,wangzhenzhisunzhinv,gongjiansigu。(《jimojushichaojunmubiao》)

chaozhongyueqi,chengshi。guanhuanshijia,fuchenglin,zitianqiu,zhongshanboyeren。zhenzongdazhongxiangfusinianjufuqincixueke,guanzhicanzhizhengshi。shiwenjian。youwenjizouyiliushijuan,yiyi。shijian《ouyangwenzhonggongji》juansanyi《chenggongmuzhiming》、juaneryi《chenggongshendaobeiming》,《songshi》benchuan。chengshixichengyitangjiemei。

chaoshuozhiqi,shengshi。(chaoshuozhi《jingyushengji》juanshijiu《songyinzhangzimubiao》)shengduzhongsunnv。

chaoyongzhiqi,lushi,fulushimin,guanzhibaowengedaizhi,mufanshi,xidushu。yongzhiyucenrang、wangjie、hanhuweilianjin(chaoshuozhi《jingyushengji》juanshijiu《wenanxianzishuorenfanshimuzhiming》)。

chaozaizhiqi,weishi,fuweishao,yichaosanlangzhijiazhou。weishiyisongwangzu,duorenrushi。(chenshidao《houshanji》juanshiliu《weijiazhoumuming》)

chaoguanzhiqi,wushi,fuwuyanlin,shuwuguan,juyoushiming。dongpocengweiguanzuo《riyu》。(《jingyushengji》juanershi《songguchaoqingdafutidianbozhoumingdaogongwugongmuzhiming》)

chaogongsuqi,lvqiushi,jiqushishi,zitangmojiqiansichuanwuyang(pengshanxianbiecheng),shishifushiji,shaoxingsiniantidianchengdoufuluxingyugongshi。(canchaogongsu《songshanji》juaner《qizhishirushitongfujianguo》,juansanshiyi《xiaojian·songtixingwu》、juansanshiba《zhazi·jiazhouzhijuner》)

chaogongxiaoqi,zhaoshi,zongshinv,weigaozongdizhinv。(《songhuiyaojigao》houfeierzhier、san)

chaozijianqi,hanshi,fuhanqiu,hanyuanjishuzu。(hanyuanji《nanjianjiayigao》juanershier《taigongrenlishimuzhiming》)

chaoziheqi,lishi,jizhoujuyeren,wenxueshijia。fulibing,guanzhicanzhizhengshi,zisunduorushi,libingbofulizhaoqiweibuzhihaoyou,cengcongsushiyou。libingzilizhenziboyu,“jingwujueren,buleshijin,haowanrujushi,youmeishibaipian。”(zhoubida《wenzhongji》juanliushijiu《zizhengdianxueshizhongdafucanzhizhengshizengtaishiliwenmingongbingshendaobei》)

chaoziqiqi,liushi,fuliuchu,guanyoutongzhilang,mupeishi,tianxingxiaoyou。(yangwanli《chengzhaiji》juanyierliu《tongzhiliujunpeifurenmuzhiming》)

(3)chaogouzhi

chaozongkeqi,lvqiushi(?—1070)。“lvqiufurenweishenzhijia,jieyingyidu。”(cenggong《yuanfengleigao》juansishiliu《guanglushaoqingchaogongmuzhiming》)lvqiujiazuyikejuzhijia。rulvqiuxiaozhong,lvqiuxiaozhi(yuchaozhongchuolianjin,qushishinv)deng。chaozhongxunnvbaren,qizhongsanrenjiejialvqiushijinshihuoguanyuan。(chaoshuozhi《jingyushengji》juanshijiu《songrenchengchaogongmubiao》)

chaozongyuanqi,huangshi(1016—1107hou),yunrenjishan,xiangyoumaoling,fengshouguangxiantaijun。(chaobuzhi《jileiji》juansanshiyi《jishantangji》)

chaoduanfuqi,zhangshi,wuren,fuzhanghui,guanzhitaizizhongshe。zhanghuiboxiongyinzhi,zhongxiongshuyan,yicaidezhuming,ziliuren,sanrenjujinshi。(shenliao《yunchaobian》juanshi《songtaizizhongshezhangchuanshimuzhiming》)

(4)weixianghezhi

chaomingzhiqi,hanshi,anyanghanshizhinv,shijiadazu,fuhanqi,weihanqizhisun,quchaozhonghuinv,jiqufanchunlinv。(zhaodingchen《zhuyinjishiji》juanshiba《hanzhizhimuzhiming》)

(er)chaoshinvziwaijiafuxuyoushenfenkekaozheruxia:

(1)chaodizhi

chaozhongcannvwuren,“zhangshiqianquzhoukaihuaxianlingshiduan,cishifengyilanghebeiluzhuanyunpanguanduchun,cishichaosanlangzhilongtugequanfaqianhuanqinglujinglveanfushigongshizhiqingzhoufanchuncui,cishitongzhilangqianshuchongxinjunjiedupanguantinggongshihusengru,jishienzhouqinghexianlingtianchen,ershitianchenzhezaozu。”(《jileiji》juanliushier《shouanxiantaijungongsunshixingzhuang》)

chaoduanyouxuzhangyuanbi,shimouguan,yezhu(yemengdezhifu)、jiashuo、chenqijunjinshichushen(huangtingjian《shanguji》juanershisan《chaojunchengmuzhiming》)。yanshimeng,guanyingzhoufangyutuiguan(《jileiji》juanliushiwu《yingzhoufangyutuiguanyanjunmuzhiming》)。ligongyu,jinshi(《jileiji》juanliushiwu《jinshiligongyumuzhiming》)。duqinyi,duhongzi。

chaoduanbenxudukai,chengfenglang,duchunzhizi。(《jileiji》juanliushiba《furenyanshimuzhiming》)。

chaoduanlinvsanren,“zhangshitaizhouhailingxianchengtengboqi,cishigongshizhaiguangbi,cishihenanfusigongcaoshimachengxiu”。(lizhaoqi《lejingji》juanershiba《chaociyingmuzhiming》)

chaobuzhinverren,zhangnvshiliangyiji(zhanglei《chaowujiumuzhiming》),yijiyixianhuanzisun,zufuweishangshuzuochengliangdao,songshiyouchuan。yijicengguanchaofengdafu,shijianhanyuanji《nanjianjiayigao》juanershi《migexiuzhuanzhenggongmuzhiming》。cinvshilizhi(《songshi》juansanqijiu《lizhichuan》)。

chaosunzhinvsiren,xuweidonggui、lixiangru、mashaocheng、lvdechong(《jingyushengji》juanershi《gongqiuxianzhubuchaojun(sunzhi)muzhiming》)。lixiangruzuoguojianganwei(《shanguji》biejijuanshiyi《bacijunxuanshi》: “jianganchengbeitanshangzuoxiaocaoting,weilixiangruweiyukailiangchuang”),qitarenshijibuxiang。

chaobizhinv,jiasunzhen(wangzao《fuxiji》juanershiba,《rurenchaoshimuzhiming》)。zhenziyuanpo,changweishangraoling,shaoxingshiernianshiweizuoxuanjiaolangzhuguantaizhouchongdaoguan。shiwangzaoyimuzhisun(tongqian)。shaoxingershijiunian,sunzhenyizuochaoqinglangxinzhijiangzhouyitongzhou(《jianyanyilaixinianyaolu》juanyibayi),zhuyou《lidaidengkeji》(《shanxitongzhi》juanyiqiwu)。

chaogongesannv,jiatongzhilangzhaomou、shenzhongshu、dujuan,jieshijiaye(louyao《gongkuiji》juanyibaiba《sifachaojun(gonge)muzhiming》)。

(2)chaojiongzhi

chaozhongyanxuwangyuan,chaoqinglangzengzuochaoyidafu。(《jileiji》juanliushiqi《shouchangxianjunchaoshimuzhiming》)。

chaozhongxinv,zhangshichengyilangzhikaifengfuxiangfuxianshiwangzhongbo,“cishitongzhilangtongpananzhouzhengmeng,cishiluotianweigaodaohua,cishixiangzhoulushicanjungaogongbing。”(《jileiji》juanliushisi《youchaoyidafuzhishichaogong(zhongxi)muzhiming》)

chaoduanfang,nvliuren,jiejiashizu。(chaochongzhi《songwangdunsu》: “xianjunyouliunv,suotuojiegaomen。”)

chaochongzhinv,jiahanyuanjizhibofu(hanpiao《jianquanriji》juanzhong: “(gongwu)zuoshaoyinshi,xiangongzaichao,yuzhiqinqi,yixiangwanglai。zizhizhiqinnvxiong,xiangongzhibomuye”)。

chaogongmaiyinv,jiazhoubida。(can《songguchuanmijushichaogongmuzhiming》,jianzhaoronghua《keyoumuzhimingdebeisongshiquziduanyan》,《nanfangwenwu》1996niandi3qi)bida,lulingren,shaoxingershiniangengwujieshi(《jiangxitongzhi》juanwushi),qiandaojiantongpanxinghuafujunshi(《fujiantongzhi》juanershisan),chunxijianzhiyuanzhou,jianzundetang,qidibizhengweizhiji(《jiangxitongzhi》juansanshijiu)。

chaogongsuzhangxuxuechunzhi。chaogongsu《songshanji》juanwu《wuzhangnvguishushangxiewangjiangjinzuoshisongzhi》: “xuelangwujiaoke。”juansishiyi《zhazi·shizhuguan》yun: “nvfuxuechunzhi,weiyushiwei。” kezhixuechunzhiyishizi。

chaozihe,yinv,jiahanyuanjizihanpiao。(《nanjianjiayigao》juanshier《piaoyandingchaoshishu》)

chaobaigu,yinvjiahejuhou(zhoubida《wenzhongji》juanqishiwu《digonglangzhishichaoziyumuzhiming》)。《donglaishiji》juanshiliu《jianhejuhou》: “kuai3fajishengju,zihuaijingshicai。hanchuangdeyixiao,louxiangjuexianai。baijiunanchongzui,huanghuazhiqiangkai。genglianwushiri,shiyouhaoshilai。”kezhihejuhouyiyoucaishizi。

tangke,quchaoshuozhimeisiniang[8]。keziqinsou,yuhangren,zhezongshaoshengyuannianjinshi。qinzongjingkangyuannian,jinbaishangshuyoupushejianzhongshushilang。jinrenrubian,zhuheyi,gesanzhen,zhizhudaoqinwangbingwuqian,weiyushisuohe,baxiang。jingkangernian,jinrenbilizhangbangchang,keshuming,yangyaoersi(《songshi》juansanwuer)。

zhubian,quchaoshuozhixiongzhinv(《songshi》benchuan)。zhubianxizhuxishuzu,jinshi,shijinbeijushijiunian,buqu。hougui,buxuanjiaolang、zhimige,zhuanfengyilang,youzhushuduozhong,jincun《quweijiuwen》、《fengyuetangshihua》。

xiekejia,quchaoshuozhinv[9], kejiazirenbo,shangcairen,shaoshengsinianjidi,jianyansinianchucanzhizhengshi。zixieji,zhuyou《siliutanzhu》。anxiejiziquqichonglinv(jian《songzaifubiannianlu》juanshiliu: “chongliyisi,(qin)guinaijinzha,qiyuchonglinvfuxiejizhizijiaqujiangyubi,fenhuiqiwen。”)

zhaoze,quchaoyongzhinv(chaoziyingzimeixing,《chunxigao》juanshisi《ciyunchaodajiuzuziying》),zhaozexizhaofanzufu,digonglang、haizhouqushanxianzhubu,zengchengyilang(jian《mantangji》juansanshier《zhangquanzhaoxianshengmubiao》)。

(3)chaogouzhi

chaozongke“nvliuren,zhangshitaichangboshijixianxiaolicenggong,minggongmuzheye。cishimouguanliumou,mouguangaoyuanzhen,mouguanyanruoji。”(cenggong《yuanfengleigao》juansishiliu《guanglushaoqing(zongke)chaogongmuzhiming》)

chaozhongxunnvbaren,“xuyuedigonglangdongdaozongguansiganbangongshizhangbiaochen,chengzhilangjingdongdongluanfusiganbangongshipangxunru、dengshilanglvqiugongsu、jinshilvqiugongxi、jinshilvqiugongda,sanzaoshi。”(《jingyushengji》juanshijiu《songrenchengchaogong(zhongxun)mubiao》)

(4)weixianghezhi

chaozhongyuan,xuzhaozi,cengguanhuaiyangsilucanjun、huzhouguianzhubu(lizhaoqi《lejingji》juansanshi《zhaozhilumuzhiming》);lizhong,fengyilang、baokangjunjielingzhoushi;(《lejingji》juanershiba《lifengyimuzhiming》);wangguiling(anren),shizi,jubudi。(《jileiji》juanliushijiu《wangjunmuzhiming》)

chaozhonghuixuhanqi,zizhizhi。guanzhichaoqingdafu,zhizizhoutonglijunzhenjiangfu。zhizhifuhuizhiyan,zengjinziguangludafu,dafuhuiju,zengkaifuyitongsansi,hanqisanxiong。(zhaodingchen《zhuyinjishiji》juanshiba《hanzhizhimuzhiming》)

zhangsili(1024—1065),zitingqing,guanwanshouxianling,shiquchaoshi,jiqususongzhangmeisushi。(《suweigongwenji》juanwushiba《yingzhouwanshouxianlingzhangjunmuzhiming》)。

qiankui,qubuzhicongzugu,kuiguanzhongdafu,fuweiji,bofuweiyan(《jileiji》juanliushiwu《tongzhilangquantongpanhuanzhoushiqianjunmuzhiming》)。

tangzhiwen,jubuzhitangjiemei。tangzhiwenxiqianchen(qianduanlifu)zhiyuezhang,qianduanlizhiwaizufu。(《gongkuiji》juanjiuer《guanwendianxueshiqiangong(duanli)xingzhuang》)tangzhiwenyouxiluyouwaizufu。(《weinanwenji》juansanshi《bazhuchaoshutie》: “mouzhiwaidamuqingfengjun,shijucixianshengnvxiong。”)

wangyuan,quchaoshi,wangyuanxisanhuaiwangdanyisun。

chenwai,quchaoshi,wai,chaoqingdafuzengzhengyidafu,guanhuanshijia。(《chengzhaiji》juanyisaner《xihezhouchenshijunmuzhiming》)

congyishangjizaikan,chaoshizefujiaozhongfudehechushen,chaoshifudadouxianshuzhili,chushenyujuyouyidingwenhuazhishideshirenjiating,youdehaishihuangzuhuoshijiadazu,ruchaogongxiaoshangzongshinv,chaozongquequhuayangwangshinv,chaomingzhiquanyanghanshinv,chaozijianquzhendinghanshinv,chaozihequjuyelishinv。chaoshiyuwangshi、hanshi、lvqiushidenghaixingchengleshidaitonghundeguanxi。zheixiejiazudenvziyouyujiatingxunran,daduojuyouxiangdangdedexinghewenhua,suzhijiaogao。bunanxiangxiang,zuoweimuqin,tamendezhishudaliduiernvxiantianzizhihehoutianxiuyangchanshengdeyingxiang。zhengshiyouyutamendecaochijiawu,xiangfujiaozi,caishichaoxingnanzinenggouzhuanxinxuewenhuojuye,zengdalechenggongdebilv。tamengouchengleweixichaoshidaiyouwenming、jiashengbuzhuidezhongyaoyihuan。

chaoshizichaojiong、chaozongqueguangdaqimen,kuarushijiadazuxinglie,yincijuyouleyuzhongduogaomenlianyindejichu。zheilijinjiehechaoshuozhi《chongdexiantaijunwangshimuzhiming》(《jingyushengji》juanershi)zuoyiyanshentaolun:

“benchaofuzicanzhizhengshijuyihoudechengzhe,weiwangshi,shiweihuixiangongruoanjiangong,huixiangongzhizi、anjiangongzhidishangshujiabulangzhonghuijushanquchengxiangwendingzhanggongzhisun,shengnvshujing,deneiwaiyishizhimei,jiaqiaoguowensushenggongdijianyigongzhizi、taizizuozanshandafu、zhishaowujun、zengjinziguangludafu、huizunfu……shuozhixianbi,wensugongzhisunye,deyiweifurenming。”

zhendingwanghuaji(huixiangong)、wangjuzheng(anjiangong)fuzijiecanzhizhengshi。juzhengdijushanquzhangqixian(chengxiangwendinggong)sunnv,shengwangshi,jiayushengdu(wensugong)dishengjingzhizishengzunfuweiqi,ershuozhizhimuweishengdusunnv,shuozhisuoqushengshiziranweishengduzhongsunnv,chaojiayushengjiayishishiqin。zaijiashangyudonglailvshi、huayangwangshi、shangcaixieshidehunyin[10],lvmengzhengzhinvjiajiwangguibofu,wangguizhigujiachaozongque,wangguishufuzhinvjiachaozhongyu,chaoshuozhinvjiaxiekejia,xiekejiasunquqichonglinv,pangencuojie,jihuyudaorenheshiqingdoukeyizhaodaozhijieyujianjiedeyuanyinguanxi。ruqinglinianjian,wanglunluanjingdong、lvehuainan,zhigaoyoujunchaozhongyuedubunengyu,yufuminyiniujiujinboyingzhi,daobuweibaoshi;zhanghailuanjingxi,zhiguanghuajunhangangxingkeji,bingbian,gangqichengzou。houtingyiqizui,fubi、ouyangxiuyizhu,fanzhongyanyiyouzhi,renzongcongfanzhiyi。ouyangxiufenershangshu: “dachenzhijia,fuzixiongdi,bingzaichaoting,quanyaozhichen,jieshixiangshi,duofangyingjiu。guxianyujianghuaiguanlikuanzhi,zhiyaohangangxingqianbuzhong。jindachenbusiguoti,danzhisien……”(《xuzizhitongjianzhangbian》juanyibaisishisi、juanyibaisishiwu)hangangweihanyizhangzi,hanyijishiwangshiweizaixiangwangdanzhangnv,yusuqi(suyijianzi)、fanlingsun(fanzhisun)、lvgongbiweilianjin。yibenrencengrentongzhishumiyuanshi、canzhizhengshi,qinglichusuiyizhishi,danyingxianghaizai,yiyouyufanzhongyanguanxiyoushan,cengbeizhiweizhongyanpengdang。fanzhongyanyuwangdanjiazuyiyouyinqin,wangzhiyouliangnv,zhangjiafanchunren,cinvchengrenhoujiajifanchunli。fanshiyuchaoshiguanxiyijia,houlaifanzhongyanzifanchuncuihaiquchaozhongcannvweiqi。jinguanfanzhongyanzaizheijianshiqingdechulishangweibichuyusiyi,danxianranouyangxiushangshushiyouzhenduixingde,tongweiqinglixinzhengdezhongjian,tamenchuliwentidefangshiyouxiangdangdechayi,zheikeyiweilijieqinglixinzhengtigongyigexindesikaojiaodu。zongzhi,shijiadazuyifuzadeyinqiguanxigongguzijidediwei,kuozhanzijideshili,zheishizhongguogudaizhengzhidezhongyaoxianxiang,zhidaojintianrengranzhideshensi。

suiranyumingmenshijiadelianyinyouliyutigaoheweichizijijiazudeshengwang,huodexuduozhengzhishangdebangzhuheqitabianli。danchaoshigengduodehaishiyuyibanguanliaotonghun,shifoumingmengaodibingfeichaoshitonghunshikaolvdeshouyaotiaojian。zheizhuyaoyuchaoshizichaojiong、chaozongquehou,zisunsuibufayiwenxuezhimingdecaishi,queduoweizhongxiacengguanyuanyouguan。songdaidekejuqushizhidujiasuleshehuideliudong,shixiangzhendinghanshi、xiangzhouhanshi、donglailvshineiyangdeleishigongqingdezhengzhixingshijiabiandejiweihanjian,yincizehunshizhuyaopingjiedeshizehunren(duoxifumu)dangshidezhengzhidiweiheshili,shixingjibenshangqujinyuyuzehunrenzijimenhuxiangdangdehunyin,jiashishengmingzhishiqizhongyigefeizhuyaokaolvdeyinsu。

chaoshizexufeichangzhongshinvxudecaishi,youqishiwenxuecaineng。rucenggong、zhangbiaochen、zhubian、hanpiaozaisongdaijunyiwenxuezhiming,qianweiyan、fanzhongyan、wuyu、yemengde、wangzao、luyou、zhaofandengwenxuejiazuyeyuchaoshiyouyinqinguanxi。youshinvxusuishibuyizhishi,danyinfuyoucaixueheqianzhi,qianchengkanhao,chaoshiyeguoduanjiangnverjiajiduifang。ruwanganren“weirenxiaodibowen,minyucizhang”,suiweibuyi,chaozhongyuanrengjiangnverjiajileta,kexitaershiqisuishizaozu。buguochaoshinvwuhuiwuyuan,“zaoguaerzhuangruqiguizhongshi,(zi)bin、tongjiejujinshi,yiwenyicheng,sannvshiligongquan、yanzao、zhujin,jiejinshi。”(《jileiji》juanliushijiu《wangjunmuzhiming》)lizhiyoumingminduxue,chaobuzhijianzhiyue: “ciguoshiye”(《songshi》juansanqijiu)suiqiyinv。”zhubianshangshitaixueshengshi,chaoshuozhi“yijianqishi,qizhi,yuguixinzheng,qiyixiongnv。”(《huianji》juanjiushiba《fengshizhimigezhugongxingzhuang》)gengweidianxingdeshicenggong,chaozongkejianvchaowenrou(1037—1062)shi,cenggongshangshiyiweididepinqiongshizi,huangyouliunian(1054),shibasuidechaowenroujiarucengmen,“shifeiyibi,ziruoye。shigu,yuneiwaishuren,wuzhangshaoyuanjin,gejinqiyi,renxiaocishu,renyousuobunengji。”(《yuanfengleigao》juansishiliu《wangqiyixingxianjunwenrouchaoshimuzhiming》)sannianhou(jiayouernian),cengshixiongdisirenjimeixuerrentongshijidi。yinweikejuqushidebiaozhunshiwencaixueerbuwenjiashi,youlecaineng,cainengfeihuangtengda,duiduifangqianjingkanhaoyineryunhun,shiyizhongyanqianliyiyuzhangyuanliyidepingheng,yeshiyizhongteshuheqianzaidemendihunxingshi,zheizhongqingkuangzaisongdaibufaqili。ruwangdanzhangnvshaoweizurenchongai,shijiadazuduoyouqiuhunzhe,wangdanjiequezhi,erjiangzhangnvjiajileganggangdengdihanyi,zurenhuaran,yinweihanyidangshimendibuxian,qieshangyouyanlideqinlaoxufengyang,xiayouqianqiliuxiadezinvxufuyu,yinci“yuanyudajiazhuxingweixiangyi”,danshiwangdanrenwei“cifeiqubeisuoxiaozhiye”,rengyinvguihanshi(sushunqin《suxueshiji》juanshiwu《taiyuanjuntaijunwangshimuzhi》)。houhanyiguanbaicanzhizhengshi,hanshijiazuyechengweizhumingdechaotingwangzu,beirenmuwei“tongmuhanshi”。zairu“duqigongyanjigui,younv,qifurenzhongai,biqiujiaxu。yanyiwenzhangqiyeweitianxiadiyi,wurusushunqin,naiyinvqizhi。”ersushunqindangshibuguoshiguanglusizhubu,qieweizaihun。“mingdaoxianshengchenghao,shisuinengweishifu,shiersanqunjuxiangxuzhong,rulaochengren,guhubushilangpengsiyongzhixueshe,yijianyizhi,xuqiyinv。”(junjianzhumu《gujinshiwenleijuhouji》juanshisi《renlunbu·zexu》)“xieshihoufangqiweinvzedui,jianshangushi,yue: wudexurushizuyi。”(《shihuazonggui》juanba)“(wang)yanguangjiancaishenjing,lileanweibuyishi,liuluobinghuozhiyu,yijianyiweijiashi,qiyinvdi。jincanzhengzhougong(zhoubida)chudishi,aiqiboqia,jinazhiweixu,ergongxunjirongyu,eryouxueshuqijiesongdongdangshi。renyushifuqizhiren。”(gongmingzhi《zhongwujiwen》juanliu)shishibushengmeiju,yourenyiweisongdaishidafuyicailunhun,zheizhongguandiankongnanlizu。

keyikanchu,hunyinbuwenfayue,zefuzhongfudehechushen,zexuzhonggerenmendihecaishi,bujinshiyongyuchaoshihunyin,yeshisongdaishidafuhunyindezhongyaotedian。liuweiwendeboshilunwen《songdaijiatingxingtaitansuo》(hangzhoudaxue1993nian)cenggenju《mingchenbeichuanwanyanji》zhongbeisongrendeshendaobeihemuzhimingzuoguotongji,129hushidafujiating,mendihunzhanle93hu,lingwai36hubuxiang,nansongshidafuhunyindeqingkuangyedazhiruci,yezhengminglesongdaishidafuhunyinshiyimendihunweizhude。ersongdaiyicailunhundelizi,chuyishangsuoju,zhumu《gujinshiwenleijuhouji》juanshisi《renlunbu》zhonghaiyoushouji,keyicankan。dengxiaonanxianshengde《songdaishidafujiazuzhongdefunv》(《guoxueyanjiu》diwujuan,beijingdaxuechubanshe1998nianban),youweikuai3tigonglesongdaishidafuzefudexiangshilizhenghejingcaifenxi,cichubushu。

四 枝委虽殊,源本则一

chaoshidiwang,zhouchaoyilaiyingzainanyangxiexian(juchaobuzhi《chaofurenmuzhiming》)。xihanchaocuoshijuyingchuan,beiweishiyizhiyouxifengjizhou(ju《weishu·chaohuichuan》),yueyutangmoqianjuchanzhouqingfeng[11]。songdaichaoshizurenyedouchengrenchanyuanweiqishiqianzudeqianrudi,chaobuzhi《jishanzhouershufuwen》jiuyun: “kuai3zongzhidie,bizuchanyuan,qiguozhichu,dayuwenyuan。”(《jileiji》juanliushi)chaochongzhizengchaobizhishiyiyun: “piaolingnanbeiyishuaimen,zhishichanyuanwushisun。”(《juciji》zhi《bieshidaoershidibizhi》)zhihoujin、houhanshi,chaoquanshiyupengmen(jinjiangsuxuzhouzhibiecheng),shijiangjiaqianci(《songshi》juansanbailingwubenchuanzai: “chaojiongzimingyuan,shiweichanzhouqingfengren,ziqifuquan,shixijiapengmen”)。rusonghouchaoquanrendalisicheng,shijujingshizhaodefang。chaoquanyouzisanren,di、jiong、gou,fenbiechengweisongdaichaoshidong、zhong、xisanjuanzhizu(chaoshuozhi《jishantangshi》)。

chaoquancizichaojiongzaizhenzongchaozhangqizhizhigao,zhaolingduochuqishou,weijuqingyao,juzhuzaikaifengzhaodefangnei。qizizongquerenzongshiguanzhicanzhizhengshi,youbeicidiyuzhaodefangnei[12]。congcizhaodefangchengweichaoshiyizuxindegenjudi,shenzhichaoshizurendoubeirenchengweizhaodechaoshi。weiraozhaode,zhongjuanchaoshiduojuyuxiangfu、xinxiang、xinzhengyidai,erdongjuan、xijuanchaoshizesanjuyujizhoujuye、rencheng、jinxiangyidai,dongjuanzhuyaojujizhoujuye,xijuanzhuyaojujizhourencheng,houlaibuzhiyijujizhoujinxiang。lingwai,chanzhougulihepengmen(jinjiangsuxuzhoudebiecheng)yeyouchaoshizurenjuzhu。jingkangzhiluanhou,chaoshiweiguanzhedadounanqian,yujuyujiangxi、zhejiang、sichuandengdi,ershaoshuweiguanzhejidaduoshuzuren,zezhiliubeifang,fanyanshengxi。zhijinshandonghezeyidai,yichaoxingweizhudecunzhuangjiuduodawushisange。chaojiongshiqishisunmingdaichaolizai《xinxiuqingfengxianzhi》juanqi《xiangxianer》“chaoziyu”[13]tiaoxiaduirusonghouchaoshidejuzhubianqianzuoguojingliangaikuo:

chaoshibenchanzhouqingfengren,juehouyinshierjubian,yinshuierqianji,yinqinglaoerqisong、zheng,yinnanduersanchu、shu,pizhishuimu,zhiweisuishu,yuanbenzeyi。

wenzhongsuoyan。“yinshierjubian”,gaizhizhongjuanchaojiongyizhieryan;“yinshuierqianji”,zhuyaozhichaodi、chaogouliangzhieryan,juchaobuzhi《songshangshuxingbulangzhongzhiyuezhoujunzhoushizengtejinlibushangshunananchaogonggaizangji》(《jileiji》juansanshiyi)kezhi,chaodizizongjianmubenzaikaifengxiangfuxian,danhuandibeishuiduo,duan、zhiliangdaishijiangzuyingqianyurenchengyushan。“yinqinglaoerqisong、zheng”,dangzhichaoshuozhixiongdieryan;“yinnanduersanchu、shu”,juchuzhezhuyaozhichaoqianzhiyizhihechaogongmaiyizhi,jushuzhezhuyaoyouchaogongwuxiongdi。

chaoshideqianxijiaoweipinfan,qibianhuahaikecongzuzangqingkuangfanyingchulai。chaoshizuzangdikekaozheruxia:

(1)kaifengxiangfu,weidong、zhong、xisanjuanzuying。dazhongxiangfuernian,chaoquanyufuchaoxiantongzangxiangfuxianjingxiaoxiang[14]。xiningernianshiyiyue,xijuanchaogouqizhangshizang“kaifengfuxiangfuxianjingxiaoxiang,heyitong(chaogou)zhizhao”(《yuanfengleigao》juansishiwu《shouanxiantaijunzhangshimuzhiming》)。qinglisinianjiuyue,dongjuanzongjianzangci。《jileiji》juansanshiyi《songshangshuxingbulangzhongzhiyuezhoujunzhoushizengtejinlibushangshunananchaogonggaizangji》)

(2)xinzhengdongli,zhongjuanzuying: chaozongquezangzhengzhouxinchengxianjingxianxiangjiacun,huangyouwunianliuyuechaozhongyanyizangci(wanggui《huayangji》juanwushi《chaojunmuzhiming》)。yuanyouwunianwuyue,zhongyanzichaoduanbingzangyuzhengzhouxinzhengxianzhijingxianxiang(《jileiji》juanliushisan《jimojushichaojunmubiao》)。chaoshuozhizichaogongshouzhenghesinianjiazisiyueyimaozangdonglizuying《jingyushengji》juanshijiu《songyinzhangzimubiao》。chaogongmaiqixiashi、wangshijiexianzu,xiashi,fuchaoyongzhizangyuxinzhengdongli(《songguchuanmijushichaogongmuzhiming》,jianzhaoronghua《keyoumuzhimingdebeisongshiquziduanyan》,《nanfangwenwu》1996niandi3qi)。

(3)jizhourenchengyushan,zhuyaoweidongjuanyingdi,xi、zhongjuanyiyourenzangci。dongjuan: chaozhongyanzhipingernian(1065)zu,zangyushan,qifuzongjianqinglisinianzuyuyuezhouguanren,xianzangxiangfu,daguansinian(1110)sanyue,gaizangrenchengyushan(《jileiji》juansanshiyi《songshangshuxingbulangzhongzhiyuezhoujunzhoushizengtejinlibushangshunananchaogonggaizangji》)。zhongcan(zongjianzi)zhipingsinianzuyutongpanshuzhoushi,xiningernianzangjizhourenchengxianjianyixianglvcunzhiyuan(《linchuanwenji》juanjiushiliu《yubulangzhongchaojun(zhongcan)muzhiming》),yuanyouyuannian,zhongcanqigongsunshizangyushan(《jileiji》juanliushisi《qiantangxianjunyeshimuzhiming》)。chaoduanyouxiningbanian(1075)zu,yuanfengqinian(1084)shiyueguibianjuyeyushan(《jileiji》juanwushier《yuluzhiqiuzhuanxianjunmuzhishu》)。duanyouqiyangshishaoshengsinian(1097)zangrenchenglvcunzuying(《jileiji》juanliushiyi《zhuijilvcunshanchuanshenwen》)。chaoduanrenchongningyuannianzangyujizhourenchengxianzhiyushan(《jileiji》juanliushiqi《chaoqingdafuzhishichaogong(duanren)muzhiming》),qiqiyeshiyuanfengsannianzangyushan(《jileiji》juanliushisi《qiantangxianjunyeshimuzhiming》)。chaoduanbenyuqiyanshichongningernianzangyushanzhiying(《jileiji》juanliushiba《furenyanshimuzhiming》)。chaoduanzhongyuanfusannianzangyurenchengxianlvcunyushan(《jileiji》juanliushiba《xiongzhoufangyutuiguanchaojun(duanzhong)muzhiming》)。chaoduanlizhenghesannianzuyuzhaodewaidi,zangyushanshimu(《jingyushengji》juanshijiu《songgupingenfujunchaogong(duanli)mubiao》)。duanrenzichaosunzhixuanhesinianzangrenchengyushan(chaoshuozhi《jingyushengji》juanershi《gongqiuxianzhubuchaojun(sunzhi)muzhiming》)。chaobuzhizuyusizhou,zangrenchengxianlvcunzhiyuan(zhanglei《chaowujiumuzhiming》)。xijuan: chaozhongxunzuzhenghewunian,zangjizhourenchengxianjianyixiangyushan(《jingyushengji》juanshijiu《songrenchengchaogong(zhongxun)mubiao》)。zhongjuan: chaozhongxishaoshengsannianzangyujizhourenchengxianjianyixianglvcunzhiyuan(《jileiji》juanliushisi《youchaoyidafuzhishichaogong(zhongxi)muzhiming》)。

(4)hangzhoujiangdou,xijuanchaozongkeyufurenlvqiushihezangyu“hangzhoujiangdouxianzhiguanglingxiang”(《yuanfengleigao》juansishiliu《guanglushaoqingchaogongmuzhiming》)。

(5)jiangxifuzhou,nanduhouchaoshizhuyaomuzangdizhiyi。zhongjuan: chaogongmaiqixiashi、wangshijiexianzu,xiashi,fuchaoyongzhizangyuxinzhengdongli,wangshi,fugongmaizangyufuzhouyihuangxianchongxianxiangdatangshanzhiyuan(《songguchuanmijushichaogongmuzhiming》)。chaoziyu,gongmaicizi,zanglinchuanzhanganxiangzhanggangjinyutangzhiyuan(zhoubida《wenzhongji》juanqishiwu《digonglangzhishichaoziyumuzhiming》)。dongjuan: chaodingzhi,duanzhizi,nanduhoujujiangxijinxixianxianyan,zigongxuan,yulinchuanzhishuiliangsi,xichengzhidizangsi,zu,nianwushiwu,peizhaoshi、hanshi,xianzu,hezangfuzhoujinxizhangningxiangfangzhiyuanxianmuzhici(ju《chaoshijiacheng》juanjiu《songzhenlejushigongxuangongmuzhiming》)。chaogongeqiandaoyuannian,zangyulinchuanxianchongdexiangcuoeshanzhixi(louyao《gongkuiji》juanyibaiba《sifachaojun(gonge)muzhiming》)。

(6)jiangxixinzhou(jinjiangxishangrao),chaoqianzhijuxinzhou,zuzangqianshanehu,zisunyinjiayan(《mingyitongzhi》juanwushiyi)。

(7)zhejiangtaizhou(jinzhejianglinhai),chaogongweicengzhitaizhou,sizangci(《zhejiangtongzhi》juanersanba)。

(8)nanjingzhengjuesi,chaoshuozhisizangjiankangfuzhengjuesi,shaobojiwenyue: “zhaodezhidi、jingxianzhiqian,gonghubugui,maicidaobian”(《sibucongkan》ben《songshanwenji》fulushaobo《jidaizhichaosizhangwen》)。

(9)chanzhouqingfeng,juyunchaojiongmuhechaozongquemujunzaiqingfengxianchengxibei25gongliyangshaoxiangxiyangshaocunxi500michu。qingqianlongsanshisinianchaoshihouyiguozijianzhengchaoheyipingdiaoshiyishimubeiyaoran,gufengtulieshu。jiaqingernianzhongshubeike。puyangshirenminzhengfu2000nianli《chaozongquezhimu》bei,lieweipuyangshiwenwubaohudanwei。2005nian5yue27ri,bizheyuanyangshiyuanchahongdejiaoshou、puyangshibowuguanwangyiyinfuguanyuanchafanggaichu,siwangmaitianwuyin,zongquemujinyuyiaiqiu,chaojiongmuzebukemiyi。ranwanggui《chaojunmuzhiming》mingyanzhongyanyufuzongquejiezangxinzhengdongli,qingfengzhimuyiweichaoshihourensuoliyiguanzhong。danchaoshizurenzangyuqingfengzhedangbufaqiren。

(10)sichuanjiazhou(jinsichuanleshan),zhongjuanchaogongwuxiongdibijinbingzhiluanrushu,gongwuaijiazhouzhisheng,wanjuzhi,zuyufuwenxiangxiaoshiqiao(jiaqing《sichuantongzhi》juansishiliu)。

lingwai,shangyouchaozhongxunzhiziduanguixiongdiyuganzhou(jinjiangxiganxian),qisungongdingxiyunzhou(jinjiangxigaoanxian),chaoshengzhiyuxujiang(jinjiangxinanchengxian)[15],zuzangdibuxiang。

chaoshishijuchanzhouqingfeng,kenengyinweizheili“dipingtukuang,siwangrudi……linluyingdai,turanghongwo”(jiajing《xinxiuqingfengxianzhi》juanyi《xingsheng》),“suochanjieshisuochangyou,feizhenqiyipin,ranyiziminsheng、zuguoyong,zebudaiwaiqiuerzuye”(jiajing《xinxiuqingfengxianzhi》juansan《wuchan》),kejianqingfengshiyigerongyishengcundenongyexian。erwudaishichaoquanxijiapengmen,yizeyinqishiyuci,erzekenengweileduobizhanluan,houlianghehoujinzaichanzhoudaxiaobaiyuzhan,nongdebaigubianye,renyanhuangwu。zhihouchaoshixiyukaifengzhaodefang,zeshiyinguanerju,zhihouchaoshiyizhaodefangweizhongxin,dongxisanju,shenzhifenyingyexuanzezailikaifengbuyuandexinzhenghexiangfu,dangranshiyinweizhaodefangjuyuquanguozhengzhi、jingji、wenhuazhongxindedouchengnei,youliyujiazudefazhan。chaoshidong、xijuanqianrencheng,yifangmianyinweixiangfudamudibeishuiduo,youaimuxueyanghu;yifangmianyeshiyinweizhaodenaizhongjuanfangchan,dong、xijuanjingguanbuduo,nanyizhangjiuliujuchuiyuxinguidedoucheng。erjizhoujiaotongbianli,wujiajiaodi,dishijiaokaifengweigao,chaoshiyuanzubeiweichaohuiyoucengfengjizhoucishi,zaidangdikenengyouyidingdejichu,xuanzejizhou,bijiaofuheshenghuoshijiheqingganluoji。chaoshizaijizhoujuye、renchenggoutianxiuying,yudangdimingmenlianyin,chengweijizhouyouyingxiangdewangzu。houlaichaobuzhixianjuyedibeipinbo,youqianjujizhoujinxiangchengdong: “jiweizhouzhi,juyexiatu,caomubuzhi。qixibeiwushan,dongnanwushilinaiyoushan,erjinxiangqidongnanyi,guminchengdi,……fanjiuguguoluo,tuyouyiyoubuyi,cixianyi。ruosongguimeiyou,qianhuqidierbunengweiliangzhe,zhicijieliang,youbukezhiye。yiyuweiershisuowenjian,qisuraomei,dajialvqingzuoye,leshanerhaoshi,houzidiyuxue……youhaoweiyuanpuyouleshiyixiangshang,erfeiweili……yuanfuzhongyunangui,shizijuyeqianciyi。”(《jileiji》juansanshi《jinxiangzhangshizhongxiuyuantingji》)buzhideqianxibujinyoudiliyuanyin,haidaiyouqiangliedewenhuaxuanzeyinsu。nanduhouchaoshixijujiangzhechuanshu,dangshiyouyuzhanluanerzhi,dansichuan、jiangxixiangduiandingdeshenghuohuanjinghenonghoudewenhuafenweiyeyingshichaoshixuanzejuzhucididezhongyaoyuanyin。zhiyuchaogongwuaijiazhoufengjingzhimei,erzhonglaocidi,gengshidaiyougerenquweidezhudongxuanzele。

zhongguogurenxianglaiantuzhongqian,qiqianxitongchangyuanyubukekangjudeziranzaihaihuoshehuidongdang,pobudeyidesecaifeichangmingxian。jiuxiangshengwu,weileyingfuziranhuanjingdebianhua,xunzhaoyouliyuzijishengcunfanyandekongjian,changbeidongdijinxingqianxihuodong。erchaoshi,chuleyinweitianzairenhuodenggetiwufakangjudeliliangbudebubeijinglixiangwai,haichangchangweilejiazuhuodegenghaodeqiantuhegengyoulidetiaojianzhudongqianxi。chaoshidezheizhongtedian,zaisongdaishirenjiazuzhongjuyoupubianxing。rulinchuanwangshijiazu,zaiwanganshishuzuwangguanzhihewanganshizhifuwangyishidaifenbieweizisunxuanzelexindedingjudianzhenzhouhejiangning,bingmeiyoufanhuiguxianglinchuan,qiyuanyinzhengruyoudeyanjiuzhefenxi: “xindedingjudianruzhenzhou、jiangningdouchuyushanglvjiaotongyaodi,zhengzhi、jingji、wenhuadoujiaogulifada,jinzeyouliyuzisunshitujinqu,tuizeyouliyutamenanshenliming。”[16]zairusichuanqingshenchenshijiazu,zitianshengwunianchenxiliangyuzhierchenyu、chenyongtongnianjinshijidihoushixianyushi。chenxiliangjiqizisunluxuyinguanweijia,sanjugedi,chenxiliangdingjuluoyang,qisunchenhui(zhangzichenchenzhizi)beiqianhedonglinjin,cengsunchenyuyi(disanzichenxunzhisun)yizhijuhuzhou,qizhichenyongjuruzhou,keweisichukaihua[17]。lingwai,congguilaoyuzuzangkan,beisongzhuduomingchenzhong,yuanjiwaidi,erzuzangbuguiguxiang,quezangyuliangjingjifujinquyudejiubuzaishaoshu,rupanmei(925—991)、caobin(931—999)、zhangyong(946—1015)、wangdan(957—1017)、kouzhun(962—1023)、chenyaozuo(963—1044)、luzongdao(966—1029)、caowei(973—1030)、wangceng(978—1038)、fanyong(981—1046)、xiasong(985—1051)、chenglin(988—1056)、pangji(988—1063)、fanzhongyan(989—1052)、yanshu(991—1055)、songxiang(996—1066)、songqi(998—1061)、baozheng(999—1062)、cenggongliang(999—1078)、chenxiliang(1001—1065)、wenyanbo(1006—1097)、diqing(1008—1057)、fanzhen(1008—1089)、lvgongzhu(1018—1089)、songminqiu(1019—1079)、wanggui(1019—1085)、xianyushen(1019—1087)、zhangshangying(1043—1121)deng[18]。qingrenzhaoyi《gaiyucongkao》juanshiba《songshishidafuduobuguibenji》yeliejule14gebeisongdelizi。songdaizuizhumingdejiweidawenhaoouyangxiu、wanganshi、sushideng,laosizhididoubuzaiguxiang: ouyangxiuyuanjijiangxiluling,wanniantuijuanhuiyingzhou,zuzangkaifengxinzhengjingxianxiang;wanganshiyuanjijiangxilinchuan,wanniantuijujizuzangjiezaijinling;sushipingshengbianzhepiaobo,zuzanghenanjiachengxiaoemeishan。bizhehaicengjushanghaitushuguanguanzang12000yuzhongjiaputiyaozuoguotongjidiaocha[19],faxiansongrenyinguanshixianghuoyinxingquerbujudelizishuyibaiji,yuanchaoqitagedai。zijushuzeweizheng:

《jiyangjundingshizongpu》: shiqianzuzhu,shijutiantaiwenling,nansongchuguanjiangxizhuanyunfushi,renmanhaixiang,luguojinyun,aiqishanshuiminqing,suizhichanliye,zhushiyizhicuiweishanxiaerju。

《dongyanghuaxiwangshizongpu》: shizuan,beisongshiyiguanjuyudongyang,anzhiziwangyinshoumuzhanjihuaxi。

《jinchuanwangshizongpu》: shizudingxin,chuzihuiji,beisongshiqianjuxujiang,chuanzhiliushisunguangze,shouquzhoushuyijiaoyu,renmanbujubenyijinzhou。

《simingzhushizhipu》: shiqianzuyunxi,nansongshiguantaizhoucishi,suiyousuzhouqianjusiming。

《jiangshizhipu》: yishizushaoyu,yuanjihuizhou,yubeisongxuanhewunianweidinghailing,suijiayuci。

《wuxiqinshizongpu》: shizuguan,songgaoyouwuningxiangzuoxiangliren,zizhan,zhenghejianweichangzhoutongpan[20],yinbujujinlingxintangxiang,houmingqincun。

《suianjinfengliushizongpu》: shizuzhang,nansongshaoxingshiwunianzhuangyuanjidi[21],shijushouchang,wannianxiezhengguitian,suiyinsuianzhijinfeng,zisunyinjiayan。

zheizhongxianxiangcengranghourenshenganbujie。wangshizhencengshuo: “songshishidafuzuijianglifa,ranyoubukejiezheer: shihuanzuzangzhongshenbuguiqixiang,yiye;fayuemingjiabuyizaijiaweichi。ru……。”(《xiangzubiji》juanshiyi)qishi,songdaishangpinjingjidefazhanshitudijianbingyanzhong,xinqijicengyou《zuigaolou》ciyun: “qianniantianhuanbabaizhu”(《jiaxuanci》juaner),zhujifangyeyoushiyun: “quchibijingyoupingshi,lengyankantazhishouer。shishunianjiansanyizhu,yanzhilaizhefuweishei?”(《jianghuxiaoji》juansanshiyi《jingjialongxungao·zhumen》)zheizhongtudipinfanyizhudexianxiangshibishisongrendexiangtuqingjieyousuodanhua。lingwai,songdaiguanyuanyidanrushi,zhaoguzurensihuchengweiyizhongyiwu,youdeshenzhirubufuchu,youxieshirenrushihoubuyuanhuixiang,kenengyeheduobizheizhongjingjifudanyouguan。

zheizhonglinghuodeqianju、guilaohezuzang,yejinrudaosongrendewenxuexiangxiangli,shisongwenxueshaolejifenlangmanhezhizhu,duolejifenkuangdahelengjing。songshizhongchuxianleshuliangbushaodesuixinshijia、suiguanshixiangdeticai。zheizhongticaisuiranzaibaijuyishizhongyiyoufanying,ruqi《wutu》: “shenxinanchuweiwutu,qixianzhanganyuluoyang”;《chuchuchengliubie》: “kuai3shengbenwuxiang,xinanshiguichu”;《zhongti》: “xintaishenningshiguichu,guxiangkeduzaizhangan”;《zhongtaoxing》: “wulunhaijiaoyutianya,dazhixinanjishijia。”dandaolesongdaibiaoxiandegengweipubian。rushaoyong《ziyong》: “bangrenxiuyongxiao,anleshiwuxiang。”hanwei《hejingrentongyounanyuan》: “dishengrengaoduoleshi,xuzhixunmeishiwuxiang。”sushi《dingfengbo》ci: “cixinanchushiwuxiang”;《wuzhehainan,ziyouleizhou,beimingjixing,lebuxiangzhi,zhiwunaiwenqishangzaitengye,danxidangzhuiji,zuocishishizhi》: “taniansheizuoyudizhi,hainanwanlizhenwuxiang”;《shilizhi》: “ridanlizhisanbaike,bucizhangzuolingnanren”;《biehainanliminbiao》zhongshenzhishuo: “kuai3benhainanmin,jishengxishuzhou。”zhanglei《taxiang》: “motanpingpengji,xinanjishijia。”xuejixuan《meishuanghanxisongke》: “haojingkanruke,xinxianjishijia。”zhouzizhi《zhouzhongshuiqi》: “gengqianzhangniandashuangjiang,yunshanqingchushiwuxiang。”zhaoyanduan《xiaozhongshan》ci: “pingshenghuanxichu,shiwuxiang。”guoyin《ciyunduanxingjialingchunrishushishishou》zhisi: “huanyouhechuhao,shanbeishiwuxiang。”luyou《linquxiaoyin》: “xinfengbuxuzuo,zhengeshiwuxiang。”zaisongrendexinyanzhong,jiaxiangbuzaishidanchundedilishizhi,ershikeyisuizhezijidehuanjihexingquwushibuke。

dangran,zaiyinongyeweizhudezhongguo,songdaiwenrenshizidexiangtuyishisuijiaoqiandaiyousuosongdong,danbingweituoliantuzhongqiandegenbenshuxing。chaoshijiazusuiranzuzangzhidibuyi,danzaibeisongshiquexiangduijizhongzaixinzhengdonglihejizhourencheng,zhiyaolisuonengji,chaoshizurenzongburangxianrenmaizangyidi。xiangchaozongjianzuyuyuezhou,chaozhongcanzuyushuzhou,zurenhaishiqianfangbaijidijiangtamenanzangrencheng。chaobuzhidefuqinchaoduanyouxiningbanian(1075)zuyujingcheng,buzhipinbunenghuizang,danyizhigenggengyuhuai,yuanfengqinian(1084)deyangjingfangzhizhu,zhongyuwanchengleguizangfuyuyushanxianyingdexinyuan。chaozongkeyufurenlvqiushihezangyuhangzhoujiangdouxian,kenengshichuyuyinguanshixiang,dangengkenengshiyouyujingjidekunjiong。songdaiguanyuandezubuguizang,youxuduobianshiyinpinsuozhi,zisunhoushisuijiayuzudiyan,《shanghaitushuguanguanzangjiaputiyao》jiuzaiyoubushaozheiyangdelizi。hekuangsongruyizhiqiangdiaojingzongshouzu,nansongshiyizhuangzutianzhujianzengduo,baozhanglejuzushenghuodewendingxing,renmenduixiangtudeyifuganyouzhujianqianghuadequshi,bingdaozhilesongyuanyihouxinxingjiazuxingshidepubianxingcheng。ranersongdaibijingshangchuyuyunyuheguodujieduan,zongzuzuzhi、xiangjuyishidekongzhixiangduisongsan,jingshenshangfanerchuxianleduanzandeziyoushiqi,zheiqueweisongdaiwenxuedehuihuangchuangzaoleyigeyoulitiaojian[22]。

小结

benzhangdezhuyaoguandianruxia:

1、chaoshiduotiancai,tianfenjigao,rongyihuodecaiminghequdekejudeshengli,weichimendixingsheng。

2、chaoshizhongrenduozhangshou,tebieshichaojiong、chaozongque、chaoshuozhideng,cengguanzhigaowei,tamendezhangshoushijiazuzhongrenhuodeyinbuheqitashehuizhaogudejihuidadazengjia。chaoshiduozisun,bingdaiyourencai,shijiazunenggoujiushengbushuai。

3、chaoshihunyinbuwenfayue,zefuzhongfudehechushen,zexuzhonggerenmendihecaishi,qiyinqinduowenxuejia,zengqianglechaoshiwenxuejiazudekenengxinghewendingxing。

4、chaoshichuleyinweitianzairenhuodenggetiwufakangjudeliliangbeipoqianxiwai,haichangweilejiazuhuodegenghaodeqiantuhegengyoulidetiaojianzhudongqianxi。

5、chaoshidetianfen、shouyao、hunyin、qianxiyuzuzang,zaisongdaishidafujiazuzhongjuyoudaibiaoxing。

[1] 文化含义复杂,根据冯契主编《哲学大辞典》(上海辞书出版社1992年版),广义的文化是指人类在社会实践过程中所获得的物质的、精神的生产能力和创造的物质财富、精神财富的总和。狭义的文化专指精神生产能力和精神产品,包括一切社会意识形式。根据张岱年、方克立主编《中国文化概论》(北京师范大学出版社1994年版),广义的文化着眼于人类与一般动物、人类社会与自然界的本质区别,其结构包括物态文化层、制度文化层、行为文化层和心态文化层四方面,狭义的文化则专注于精神创造活动及其结果,主要指心态文化层。根据阴法鲁主编的《中国文化史》(北京大学出版社1989年版),文化有四种理解,一是物质文化和精神文化的总称;二是专指精神文化,即社会意识形态以及与之相适应的典章制度、政治和社会组织、风俗习惯、学术思想、宗教信仰、文学艺术等;三是指社会生活中和政治、经济两类并列的文化类而言;四是指哲学。笔者这里根据生物演化进程使用标准略有不同,如《中国文化概论》中认为狭义的文化包括社会心理和社会意识形态两个子系统,社会心理指人们日常的精神状态和思想面貌,未经理论或艺术升华,如人们的要求、愿望、情绪等。社会意识形态又分为基层意识形态(如政治理论、法权观念)和高层意识形态(如哲学、文学、艺术、宗教),是经过了系统加工的社会意识。笔者这里只将社会意识形态归入文化范畴,而将社会心理归入心理范畴。潘光旦先生在《人文史观·文化的生物学观》(《潘光旦文集》第二卷,北京大学出版社1994年版,原文写于1930年)将演化由低到高划为理化现象、有机现象、心理现象、社会现象、文化现象五层,但没有明确定义。

[2]《潘光旦文集》第二卷《人文史观·文化的生物学观》第313—315页,北京大学出版社1994年版。

[3] 赵功民《遗传学与社会》第200页,辽宁人民出版社1986年版。

[4]王珪《华阳集》卷五十《提点京东诸路州军刑狱公事兼诸路劝农事朝散大夫行尚书祠部员外郎充秘阁校理上轻车都尉借紫晁君墓志铭》(以下简称《晁君墓志铭》)。

[5] 晁氏族人亦有早夭者,如晁涣之、晁临之等,但亦可能有长寿而不知其生卒年者,此处只统计能明确考知其大致生卒年的晁氏人物。

[6]晁公遡《嵩山集》卷四七《送子嘉兄赴达州司户序》: “生十年而北敌发难……”,按《宋史纪事本末》卷五十六“金人入冦”条云: “徽宗宣和七年(1125)冬十月,金将粘没喝、斡离不分道入冦。”故知公遡生于1116年,拙著《晁说之研究》第58页(学苑出版社2005年版)系年有误,借此正之。

[7] 参张邦炜《宋代盐泉苏氏剖相反》,《宋代婚姻家族史论》,人民出版社2003年,第274——304页。张先生统计是按实岁,笔者这里以虚岁计。

[8] 唐恪、王元娶晁氏的详细考证参张剑《晁说之研究》第74页,学苑出版社2005年版。

[9] 晁说之《景迂生集》卷七《次韵任伯途中见寄》其二云: “倩君成就一家书”,自注曰: “古人名婿曰借倩,近乃妄以为笑倩。”按倩即婿。《赤城集》卷十二赵蕃《台州谢子畅义田续记》云: “予之祖母乃崇福晁公之女,子畅之伯祖母乃景迂晁公之女。”按谢子畅父为谢杰,祖父为谢克明,伯祖父为谢克家。

[10] 参《华阳集》卷三十八《晁君墓志铭》、卷五十三《寿安县太君吕氏墓志铭》以及前有关谢克家之考证。

[11] 据晁端彦《晁氏世谱》序(乾隆四十年《晁氏家乘》),可知晁佺生于五代后梁贞明二年,即公元916年,其祖禋已居澶州,因此迁澶州时当在唐代后期。说之《宋任城晁公墓表》言佺生于唐末天佑间,不确。

[12] 楼钥与周必大俱云迥子宗悫时被仁宗赐第昭德坊,但晁迥《法藏碎金录序》云: “挂冠之后,栖息乎浚都昭德坊之旧居。”可见昭德坊内有晁迥旧居,宗悫被赐第昭德坊应是坊内其他居处。

[13] 拙著《晁说之研究》第6页将此段引文误系于《新修清丰县志》序里,借此正之。

[14] 晁端彦《晁氏世谱序》,乾隆四十年《晁氏家乘》,参见笔者《〈晁氏世谱序〉的发现及其历史价值》,《华南师范大学学报》2004年第6期。

[15] 周必大《文忠集》卷五十五《晁氏二图序》,卷四十七《题张魏公与晁升立帖》。

[16] 汤江浩《北宋临川王氏家族及文学考论: 以王安石为中心》第7页,福建师范大学2002年博士论文。

[17] 参包伟民《宋代陈希亮家族及其迁徙考》,台湾《大陆杂志》第90卷第2期(1995年)。

[18] 参看洪本健《两京地区人文自然环境与北宋大臣的致仕卒葬》,湖北大学学报2001年第6期。

[19] 王鹤鸣主编《上海图书馆馆藏家谱提要》,上海古籍出版社2000年版。

[20] 据《建炎以来系年要录》卷五十一,秦湛通判常州时在绍兴二年。

[21] 刘章,《宋史》卷三百九十有传。按宋另有一刘章(1067—1129),字微之,庐陵(今江西吉安)人。徽宗宣和三年进士,事见宋王庭珪《卢溪文集》卷四五《故桂岭刘府君墓志铭》。

[22]宋元同为近代家族的过渡阶段,但在文学表现上却是宋繁荣而元衰落,笔者以为关键在于宋朝右文政策的施行,而元朝对文化和文化人要冷漠得多。

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