快3

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中国文学网

张伯江: 郭沫若新诗的汉语精神

内容提要 郭沫若有他自己对汉语的感知,有他对汉语历史与未来的思考,有他对二十世纪全新的汉语文学的信心,有他已然成竹在胸的中国新诗的理想图景。他巧妙地化用古往今来的文辞英华,遵从汉语的表达习惯,学习西方抒情诗的精神,写出一系列气息清新、气象奔腾的诗作。他的新诗,不拘泥于中国旧体诗的文体,不受诗句字数的约束,情感炽烈,流畅自然,处处体现着现代汉语内在的韵律和节奏,又洋溢着时代的新气息。长期以来,人们对郭沫若新诗创作有一种偏见,即认为是情感先行,而艺术形式建树乏善可陈,甚至存在一定的缺憾。本文的目的正是要纠正这个认识上的偏误,用语言学的新理论和新学说,解读郭沫若新诗语言风格的本质机制。
关键词 关键词: 郭沫若;新诗;现代汉语

引   言 


  xiandaihanyucongbaihuawenyundongxingqi,bingdaguimoqudaiwenyan,chengweishehuiwenjiaotongyongyuyan,zhizhixinzhongguobataquedingweihanminzugongtongyu,zhijinyiyoubainian。xianzairenmenhuiguxiandaihanyudefaduan,changchanghuitijizaoqi“yuwenyundong”dechangdaozhechenduxiu、hushi、qianxuantongdengrendekouhaoshizhuzhang,eryouyiwuyidihushileshushinianjianxiandaihanyushijianzhemendezhongyaogongxian。shishishang,yizhongquanmingongtongyudedingxingguocheng,gengduodeyuqishiyongzhedegongtongchuangzaoyouguan,qizhong,youyingxiangdewenxuejiaqilejuzuqingzhongdezuoyong。guomoruojiushiqizhongburonghushideyiwei。

  guomoruo1914nianfuriliuxue,meiyouzhijiecanyuguoneihonghonglieliedexinwenhuayundong,dantahenkuaixiudaolexinwenxuedeqixi,zhihoubiantoushenyuxinwenxuechuangzuozhongeryifabukeshou,chengweiyiweizuichenggongdexiandaihanyudeshijianzhe。[1]

  guomoruozairiliuxuechuqi,jiuyouguoyongxiandaibaihuajinxingwenxuechuangzuodexiangfa。1919nian,tacongguoneijilaidebaozhishangdiyicikanjianzhongguodebaihuashi,“kanlebujueanandijingyi: ‘zheijiushizhongguodexinshima?neimakuai3congqianzuoguodeyixieshiyeweichangbukefabiaole’。”(《chuangzaoshinian》,shanghaixiandaishuju,1932)suowei“congqianzuoguodeyixieshi”yinggaizhideshi1916-1919nianxiedeziyoutibaihuashi,ru《xinyue》: “yueerya!nihaoxiangbadujindeliandao。nibazheihaishangdesongshuzhuodaole,a,kuai3yebeinizhuodaole!”《baiyun》: “nishibushibaoledelengbing?kuai3zendebanitunxiahouqu,jiejiekuai3dejiaoxin?”guomoruoxiezheixieshideshihou,hushide《wenxuegailiangchuyi》hechenduxiude《wenxuegeminglun》haimeiyouwenshi,“wenxuegeming”dekouhaohehushidebaihuashiyehaimeiyoutichuyufabiao。

    一种有代表性的看法是,“五四”白话文运动是先由胡适等人理论上倡导,再引出鲁迅等人的创作实践。这个过程的代表人物也主要是胡适和鲁迅,比如有的学者明确指出: “胡适范式不过是激活本土白话小说的旧有资源,难以在语言转型上开辟新的天地”,“真正打开新体白话局面的,于创作方面是鲁迅”。[2]1955年现代汉语普通话被定义为“以典范的现代白话文著作为语法规范的现代标准汉语”后,语文教学与语法研究界也更多地关注鲁迅的小说和散文。与此同时,郭沫若的现代诗歌创作,虽然得到文学史上一定程度上的认可,却没有获得理论上的价值论证。本文所要强调的正是郭沫若新诗对于现代汉语快3的重大贡献。 

  yinggaishuo,guomoruodexiandaixinshichuangzuo,yizhishiyanzhezijidefazhanxianlujinxingde,xingchenglezijidutedewenti。takenengwanquanbuzhidaohushizhuzhangde“kuai3kejinliangcaiyong《shuihu》《xiyouji》《rulinwaishi》《hongloumeng》debaihua”[3],yebuzhidaofusinianzhuzhangde“zhiyongxiyangwendekuanshi,wenfa,cifa,jufa,zhangfa,cizhi……yiqiexiucixueshangdefangfa,zaochengyizhongchaoyuxianzaideguoyu,ouhuadeguoyu,yinerchengjiuyizhongouhuaguoyudewenzi”[4],danshitayouzijiduihanyudeganzhi,youduihanyulishiyuweilaidesikao,youduiershishijiquanxindehanyuwenxuedexinxin,youtayiranchengzhuzaixiongdezhongguoxinshidelixiangtujing。taqiaomiaodihuayongguwangjinlaidewenciyinghua,zunconghanyuzishendebiaodaxiguan,xuexixifangshuqingshidejingshen,xiechuyixilieqixiqingxin、qixiangbentengdeshizuo。tadexinshi,bujuniyuzhongguojiutishidewenti,bushoushijuzishudeyueshu,qingganchilie,liuchangziran,chuchutixianzhexiandaihanyuneizaideyunlvhejiezou,youyangyizheshidaidexinqixi。

  zhangqiyilai,renmenduiguomoruoxinshichuangzuoyouyizhongpianjian,pianxiangyurenweishiqingganxianxing,eryishuxingshijianshufashankechen,shenzhiyouyidingdequehan[5]。benwendemudezhengshiyaojiuzhengzheigerenshishangdepianwu,yongyuyanxuedexinlilunhexinxueshuo,jieduguomoruoxinshiyuyanfenggedebenzhijizhi。

guomoruo 

一  韵律的自觉——汉语式的韵律和节奏  

快3  hanyudeshigeziguyilaijiangqiuyunlvhejiezou,meigeshidaizuiliuxingdeshigeyunlv,doushihedangshitongxingdeyuyinjiegoujinmixiangguande。mingrenyangshenshuo: “fanguanyidaishu,xuxiaoyidaiyu。”(《shenganwaiji》juansan)。xianqinshiqihanyushiyidanyinjieweizhudeyuyan,neishimeigeyinjiedejiegoubijiaofuza,shenzhiyoukenengcunzaifufuyin。meigeyinjiedulixingqiang,haoshiyejiaozhang,xiang《shijing》neiyangjuzijiaoduandegeshijiushichangtai,yiziyidun,siziyiju,chengweijiezouganzuihaodejushi。handaiyihou,hanyuyinjiequyujianhua,shuangyincikaishizengduo,shuangyin、danyinbingxing,yushichuxiandanshuangyinjiedapeide“wuyan”“qiyan”zhanzhudaodiweideshijumoshi。xiandaihanyurengranshidanyinciheshuangyincibingxingdegeju,yinci“wuyan”“qiyan”rengranshirenmenganjuezuizirandeshijufangshi。lingengshenzhirenwei,xiandaishiju“qingqingdeliushuilanlandetian”“honghonghuaerlanlandetian”yuchuantong“wuqiyan”dejingshenshixiangtongde,shiwuqiyandefazhan。[6]lingenghaitichule“bandoulv”,jibujuyujiyan,zhiyaorangmeigeshixingdebanzhongyaodoujuyouyigejinyu“dou”dezuoyongjiuxing。you“dou”,jiukeyibameiyigeshixingfenweijunyundeshangxialiangban;bulunshixingdezhangduanruhe,zheishangxialiangbanxiangchazongbuchuyizi,huozhewanquanxiangdeng。siyanshishi“erer”,wuyanshi“ersan”,qiyanshi“sisan”,xiandaixinshizekeyishi“wusi”“siwu”dengduozhongxingshi。

快3    lingengxianshengzheiyilunshuyiyizhongda。tadezheiyiganwu,chengshuyuershishijizhongye,taduixinshichuangzuozhongzheiyiguilvdetixianyecaiqulejianjinshidepingjia[7]。kuai3renwei,guomoruoduizheizhong“bandoulv”zaojiuyouhenshenkedetichaheganwu,congtachuangzuoxinshidediyitianqi,jiushishibawozhezheiyihanyujiezoumingmai。yixiashicongtazaoqizuopinzhongsuiyizhaichudeyixieshiju,zheizhongfenggezai《nvshen》《xingkong》dengjibushijizhongkeyishuoshisuichukejian:

 

    从今后快3不愿∣常在家中居住,快3要常在这∣开阔的空气里面,快3只不羡慕∣那空中的飞鸟,他们离了你∣要在空中飞行(《地球,快3的母亲!》) 

    快3为快3心爱的人儿∣燃到了这般模样!(《炉中煤》) 

    平和之乡哟∣快3的父母之邦!岸草那么青翠∣流水这般嫩黄!(《黄浦江口》) 

    不可凭依的哟∣如生的梦境!不可凭依的哟∣如梦的人生!(《瓶》第一首)快3  

 

  guomoruoduizhongguoshigezheizhongyunlvchuantongdeyushijujinjingshenyoushenkededongjian。zaitaxinzhong,zheizhongdui“bandoulv”dezhuiqiu,shenzhiyongyuqicixianshichulaidezuofa,shiyuliangqiannianqianquyuandezuofayaoxianghuyingde。1940niantafabiaowenzhangzhichu: “neixiexianshengmen,tamenzaiguzhizhewenyanwen,yiweizheishizhongguozhicui,qishizhenzhengdeguocui,tamenhechangdongde!jiulianzhihuyezhedewenti,benlaishierqianniandebaihuawenyundongdechanwu,tamengenbenjiubuzhidao。”“quyuansuochuangzaochulaidesaotihezhihuyezhedewenyanwen,jiushichunqiuzhanguoshidaidebaihuashihebaihuawen”。[8]kuai3zaiguomoruodexinshilikeyiqingchukandao《chuci》deyingzi:

 

    交不忠兮怨长,期不信兮告余以不闲。朝骋骛兮江皋,夕弭节兮北渚。(屈原《九歌·湘君》) 

    啊,是快3自己呀把她误解,她是忙着试验呀才没有信来。(《瓶》第二十六首) 

    接信时是那么的呀心跳,见信后又这般的呀无聊。(《瓶》第二十首)快3  

 

    快3清楚地看到,郭沫若所有的诗作都有明确的韵律追求,尽管他自己称“内在的韵律”[9]是“情绪底自然消涨”,认为“这种韵律异常微妙,不曾达到诗的堂奥的人简直不会懂。”他用“音乐的精神”来比况这种超乎外形的韵律感。其实,当快3了解了汉语音节结构发展的历史就可以坦然承认,每个时代主流诗歌的诗句字数、格律尽管不同,其内在精神是一致的[10]。郭沫若深谙此道,从来没有写出“那轻,那娉婷你是,鲜妍百花的冠冕你戴着”“雪化后那片鹅黄,你像;新鲜初放芽的绿,你是”那种有悖语言自身节奏和谐的蹩脚诗句来。 

  guomoruoshuo: “shideyuyankongpashizuinande,buguanyoujiaoyunwujiaoyun,yunlvdetuiqiaozongyinggaifangzaidiyiwei。hexie,shishideyuyandeshengming。”[11]guomoruodexinshixiezuozongshibaohanjiqing,suoyitabuyuanjiandanfuxianjiutishicineizhongyiqibageziweixiandejuzi,tagenjuguwangjinlaideyunlvchuantong,daliangshiyonglesangeyunlvdanweigouchengderongliangjiaodadezhangju,liru:

 

    这清香怕不是梅花所有? 

    这清香怕吐自你的心头? 

    这清香敌赛过百壶春酒。 

    这清香战颤了快3的诗喉。(《瓶·春莺曲》) 

 

    zheizhongjuzimingxianshizhongguojindaibanqiangtixiquchangcichangyongde3+3+4yunlvmoshi(ru“shaoyaokaimudanfanghuahongyipian,yanyangtianchunguanghaobainiaoshengxuan”),zheizhongmoshiyongyuxiandaishige,jinyibukuozhan,jiuchengweigengweibenfangdeshiju:

 

    快3的猛力∣纵使打不破∣这万恶的魔宫, 

    到那首阳山的路程∣也正好∣携着手儿同走!(《励失业的友人》) 

    快3很想∣把快3的琴和快3的瑟∣为她弹奏呀, 

    或者是∣摇快3的钟击快3的鼓∣请她跳舞。(《〈关雎〉的翻译》)快3  

 

    zheizhongkuozhanzhisuoyichengweikeneng,haishiyuanzihanyuyunlvjufadebenzhitezheng。

  zhangqiyilai,wenxueyanjiuzhongyouyizhongbashigeyuyanyuziranyuyanduiliqilaideqingxiang,zheizhongguannianyinggaishishenshoujindaiyilaixifangyuyanguanniandeyingxiang: yingyudeziranyuyanshouyaodeshiqingzhongyindejiangjiu,jiezoudesongjinjuyuciyaodiwei,zhiyoudaoleshigeyuyanlicaiyouyishidizhizaojiezou;hanyuzhangqiyilaijiushikanzhongjiezoude,hanyushigedejiezouganjiushizhijiequzishenghuoyuyanjiezouguilvde。keyishuo,yingyu“huashihua,shishishi”(huozhejiao“yushiyu,geshige”);zaihanyuzhong,shuohuadejiezouwuyiyushigedejiezou,ziyuzizhijiandeyiyangduncuotianrandaiyouyinlexing。yincikuai3yaotebieqiangdiaodeshi,hanyuziranyuyandebenzhijiushijiangqiuyunlvhejiezou,“bandoulv”bujinshishijudetongze,yeshiziranyuyandetongze。shenjiaxuanmingquezhichu,hanyushi“yiduiweiben”deyuyan: hanyudadaoyupianheduanluo,xiaodaoduanyuheci,doushiyiduiweiben,zhishifangdasuoxiaodechicunbutongeryi;bujinshishengyundedui,yeshiyufaheyuyidedui。[12]

 

《nvshen》,taidongtushuju

1921nianchubanben  

     《xingkong》,taidongtushuju 

快3    1924nianzaibanben 

二  句法的自由——汉语本质的并置句法  

  yuxinwenhuayundongzhongbufenzhuzhangzhebutong,guomoruobingbushikeyidizaishijuzhongyinru“xiandaide”jufa,ershizhunquedibawohanyujufadebenzhitedian,bingchengzhegujinhanyuyiyiguanzhidewenfajingshen,ranggulaodehanyujufachuantongyiquanxindemianmaochengxianchulai。renmenhuiganshoudao,guomoruodejuzishixinde,jushishidaiyouqianglieshidaigande,dandulaiqueyoushididaodehanyu。zheigetese,zaiyiwangdehanyuyufaguannianxiananyitixian。jinnianlai,hanyuxuezhebaituolexifangxueshuodeyingxiang,riyikanqinglehanyujufadebenzhitedian: hanyujufayuxifangjufazuidadebutongzaiyu,xifangyuyanshiyizhong“litide”jiegou,jiyidongciweizhongxin,juzizhongdeqitachengfendoushiweiraozhedongciquedingqishenfen、tixianyudongcideguanxi;erhanyushiyizhong“pingmiande”jiegou,jiciyuzhijianshijiandandexianxingpupaiguanxi,buxuyaoyuzhuizuoguanlian,yebuxuyaotaiduodexucijianlilianxi,shiciyushicidebingzhipupai,shiduzhenengzirandiduchuqijiandeyuyiguanxi。yourenshengdongdibiyuwei: hanyujuzishi“zhujieshi”de,yingyushi“putaochuan”shide。[13]guomoruodeshiju,zhengshijingzhundibawolezheiyibenzhi,yushikuai3dudaolejireqingbenfang,youziranliuchangdehanyushidexinshi。

    与新文化运动中部分主张者不同,郭沫若并不是刻意地在诗句中引入“现代的”句法,而是准确地把握汉语句法的本质特点,秉承着古今汉语一以贯之的文法精神,让古老的汉语句法传统以全新的面貌呈现出来。人们会感受到,郭沫若的句子是新的,句式是带有强烈时代感的,但读来却又是地道的汉语。这个特色,在以往的汉语语法观念下难以体现。近年来,汉语学者摆脱了西方学说的影响,日益看清了汉语句法的本质特点: 汉语句法与西方句法最大的不同在于,西方语言是一种“立体的”结构,即以动词为中心,句子中的其他成分都是围绕着动词确定其身份、体现与动词的关系;而汉语是一种“平面的”结构,即词语之间是简单的线性铺排关系,不需要语缀作关联,也不需要太多的虚词建立联系,实词与实词的并置铺排,使读者能自然地读出其间的语义关系。有人生动地比喻为: 汉语句子是“竹节式”的,英语是“葡萄串”式的。[13]郭沫若的诗句,正是精准地把握了这一本质,于是快3读到了既热情奔放,又自然流畅的汉语式的新诗。

  这跟那些所谓“现代的”(欧化的)句法相比,尤其是比起那些在诗句里人为地添加虚词的主张来,不知要高明多少。[14]新文化运动开始后的新诗写作中,快3可以清楚地看出有些诗人刻意在诗句里植入欧化句法的痕迹。例如: “主人也是名利场中的过来人,但现在寻着了他的新乐趣”“他是一个聪明人,他把聪明用在他的园子上”(胡适《临行赠蜷庐主人》)。其中“他的新乐趣”和“他的园子”都是刻意使用英语中的领属结构,如果用自然的汉语其实应该说成“寻着了新乐趣”“把聪明用在园子上”,用了“他的”反而显得矫揉造作;再如“西山的秋色几回招快3,不幸快3被快3的病拖住了”(胡适《十一月二十四夜》),不仅“快3的病”是没必要的领属结构,“被”字用在这里更是没有几分道理,明显是模仿英语被动句的结构。 

  以前有些论者谈及欧化句式的弊端,指出句子过长,意义缠绕,显得啰嗦,[15]没有说到点子上。因为所谓的长短、缠绕都是相对而言的,有时取决于阅读者的主观感受。快3认为,欧化句式的缺点主要在于句子层次复杂,是一种结构性的欧化,而不仅仅是风格的欧化。汉语的句子,结构关系简单,句子成分之间都是线性的并置。像“快3被快3的病拖住了”,单看长度并不很长,但多余的被动结构给句子平添了曲折,就很不符合汉语的自然习惯。再如“急坏种花人,苞也无一个”(胡适《希望》),虽然简短,但短短五个字的“苞也无一个”违反了汉语五言诗的“3+2”节奏传统,更重要的是用了一个浓缩的特殊句式(“连苞也没有一个”),违反了平面化的常态,造成极不流畅的效果。反观郭沫若的诗句,从字数上看虽显得较长,但句子层次简单,节奏匀称,读起来朗朗上口,原因就在于他是从本质上紧扣了汉语的句法特点的,如: 快3  

 

    巫峡的奇景是快3不能忘记的一桩。【1】 

    十五年前快3站在一只小轮船上,【2】 

    那时候有迷迷蒙蒙的含愁的烟雨【3】 

    洒在那浩浩荡荡的如怒的长江。【4】 

 

    快3的轮船刚好才走进了瞿塘,【5】 

    啊,那巫峡的两岸真正如削成一样!【6】 

    轮船的烟雾在那峡道中蜿蜒如龙,【7】 

    快3是后面不见来程,前面不知去向。【8】  

 

    峡中的情味在快3的感觉总是迷茫,【9】 

    好象幽闭在一个峭壁环绕的水乡。【10】 

    快3头上的便帽竟从快3脑后落下,【11】 

    当快3抬起头望那白云叆叇的山上。【12】(《巫峡的回忆》)快3  

 

  zheisanxiaojieshiduqilaiziranliuchang,meigejuzidoushixiangjindejiezouguilv,meiyixiaojiedouyousijuxiangjindeyunlvjiegoutizucheng,duqilaiyoudupianwendeganjue。dangkuai3zixiguanchaqijianyufaguanxideshihou,huifaxianbaohanzheduozhongduoyangdeluojiguanxi。rudi1jushigedulidejuzi,jiuyuyilaishuo,jihushitongshequanshide,danhedi2julianqilaidu,jirenganjueruduijuyiban;di3、4juyexiangshiduiju,congyuyishangfenxiqueshiyizhuyuyiweiyu;di10jushiduidi9judechengxu,di11jushidui9、10liangjudechengxu,di12juyoushiduidi11judebuchong。kejian,hanyuzhengqidejiegoudanweibaohanzheduozhongduoyangdeyuyiguanxi。

  hanyudejuzibukaoluojijiegoulaizuzhi,zheiyitezhenggairuherenshi?youxielunzheshichijiliedepipingtaidude。rufusinianrenwei: “zhongguochuantongwenxuezaiyuyanxue、xiucixuefangmianyuxifangxiangbi,juyouhenduonanyimibudequexian。diyi,zhongguowenzhangdanjuduoerfujushao,shenzhimeiyou,cengcengfenxidejuqunyuwenzhangjiugengxianjianle。yigewenticengmian,weiqiupuzhang,shenduquefeichangqian,‘qizhirushi,qipingrudi’。”[16]youqudeshi,yuyanxueyanjiuzhebingbuzheimekan,tamenrenweimeizhongyuyandouyouzijidutedelishi,bunengqiangxingyongyizhongyuyandeguigequyingtao、gaizaolingwaideyuyan。zhaoyuanren、lvshuxiangdourenweibunengyongyingyude“juzi”gainianlaitaohanyu,lvshuxiangshuo: “yongxiaojuerbuyongjuzizuojibendanwei,jiaonengshiyinghanyudeqingkuang,yinweihanyukouyuliteduoliushuiju,yigexiaojujieyigexiaoju,henduodifangkeduankelian。”[17]gouchenghanyuliushuijudejibendanwei,jikeyishizhuweijuquande,yekeyizhishiweiyubufen,yewanquankeyizhishiyigemingciduanyu。qianbainianlai,hanyuyizheizhongxingyunliushuidezuzhifangshigoujumoupian,bujinbushangwenci,erqiechuangzaochumeilideshiwen。wenyanruci,baihuayiruci。baihuawenyundongdechangdaozhexiwangbaihuageng“jiangqiuwenfa”,yuanwangshihaode,danbuqushenrutichahanyutedian,ershijiandandibayingyuguannianyizhidaohanyushenshang,weimianjiaozhuguse。guomoruosuiranmeiyouzuoyuyanxueshangdexuelishenjiu,dantaduihanyudebenzhitezhengyouminruideganzhinengli,tadexinshi,duihanyu“liushuiju”tezhengfanyingdezuiweidaowei,ru: “nikuai3doushiqudecongcong,zhonggeshimianbuledebieli,kuai3zhanzhuanxiangsong。qijideya,kuai3lianggepiaopeng!”(《yebie》)

  yupingboshuo: “wenfazheigedongxibushiyiyingyongzaishishang。zhongguobenmeiyouwenfashu,neixiezhucikeciweicideweizhigengmeiyouguiding,kuai3henkeyiliyongta,bajuzizaodehenbianhuahenhuopo。neizhangfadecuozongyeshiyiyangdedaoli。”[18]zheidaibiaolezaoqiyizhongwenhedejufaguan,dangshiduijufaderenshihaibugoushenke。jintiankuai3yaoqiangdiaodeshi,hanyujufade“liushuiju”guilvshipubiancunzaiyushijuhesanwenlide,zheishihanyuyufayanjiuyibainianlaizuizhongyaodexinrenshi。

  “liushuiju”deyaoyijiuzaiyu,hanyulilianxudejuzizhijian,yaobiaodadeyisishiziranjiexu、ziranliudongde,danshiyongdeduanyuhuoxiaojudejiegou,zebushoujufaguizedeqiangzhiyueshu,ruxiamianzheiyixiaojieshi:  

 

    快3自从遇见她,快3便想她,想她,想她呀, 

    沙洲上快3不知道一天要去多少回;  

    但快3遇见她一次后,便再也不能见她了,  

    快3不知道她住在何处,她真是有去无归。(《〈关雎〉的翻译》)快3  

 

    连续的几个句子并不像英语那样一直使用一个主语,句子的结构类型也不尽相同。乍看上去诗体非常自由,没有句式、字数的约束,但整体读起来却很有“求之不得,寤寐思服。悠哉悠哉,辗转反侧”的神气,可以说准确复原了两千多年前的口气和情绪。快3赞同魏建的看法: “郭沫若比早期白话诗人的高明之处在于,他从一开始关注的就不是白话能否入诗,而是为新诗寻找取代旧诗艺术规范的‘诗之精神’。”[19]这里所强调的是,不论旧诗还是新诗,反映“诗之精神”的,一定是汉语的艺术规范,而不是让汉语的词汇遵从西方语言的组织方式来作诗,那样作出来的必定是西式的诗,而不是中国的诗。

三  结构的自省——汉语式的语句组构  

  郭沫若的新诗成就,文学界早有评定。一致认为他的诗作“摆脱旧诗格律的镣铐而趋向自由诗”[20]“不独艺术上他的作品与旧诗词相去最远,最要紧的是他的精神完全是时代的精神——二十世纪底时代的精神”[21]这无疑是大文学家对大文学家的最到位的评价。但这种“神思飙举,游心物外,或惊才绝艳,或豪放雄奇,或幽闲澹远”的“当时未见可与对垒者”[22]的艺术风格,究竟是来自哪里呢?有很多人认为,既然是彻底摆脱旧形式的,那就一定是外来的、西化的。郭沫若的诗作虽然偶尔夹杂一些外文单词,但正如上文所指出的,比起那些有意模仿西方语言句法的诗人,郭沫若很少做那方面的努力。相反,他看清了汉语的实质,准确地把握了汉语的精神,又艺术地把汉语固有的构词造句手段与时代气息相结合,并发挥到极致。 

  genfusinianzhuzhangde“zhiyongxiyangwendekuanshi,wenfa、cifa、zhangfa、cizhi……,yiqiexiucixueshangdefangfa,zaochengyizhongchaoyuxianzaideguoyu,yinerchengjiuyizhongouhuaguoyudewenxue”,“yingyongxiyangxiucixueshangdeyiqiezhisu,rangguoyujuyoujinggongdejishu”wanquanxiangfan,guomoruoyunyongtachaoqiangdehanyuganshouli,jinqikenengdidiaoyonghanyuguyoudebiaodashouduan,youqishijiongyiyuxifangyuyandejijubiaoxianlidecihui-yufashouduan,bingrongrushidaiqixi,gouzhuletadexinshifengge。xiamianjusangedianxinglizheng。

快3  yishikendingxingweiyudedaliangshiyong。xiandaihanyude“shi”zibingbudengtongyuyingyudebedongci,yejiushishuo,qibujinjinshigeqiyufazuoyongdelianxici,erqieshijuyoukending、qiangdiao、qingganbiaodahejiezoubiaodadengduozhongzuoyongdeshiyichengfen。zhaoyuanrenduihanyuweiyuyouguoxizhideguancha,tafaxianhanyudeweiyuruguoanmingcixingweiyu、dongcixingweiyuhexingrongcixingweiyulaifenleiqishiyiyibuda,takandaodeyigezhongyaoshishishi,bulunnayizhongcileideweiyu,doukeyibeikending;bulunnayizhongcileideweiyu,doukeyizuoxushuchengfen。yong“shi”duiweiyujiayikending,shigezhongweiyuleixingdetedian。guomoruozaiqixinshizhongjiangzheigeshouduanyunyongdeshifenpubian,chanshengledutedeyuqixiaoguo,zaiyibanxingdexushuhemiaoxiedejichushang,jiaruleshirenzhutidequexinqingtai。liru:

 

  你时常地爱抚他们,你时常地怀抱着他们(《地球,快3的母亲》) 

  快3呀动也不敢一动(《朋友们怆聚在囚牢里》) 

  宇宙万汇都有死,快3与你永远不死。(《赠友》) 

  你们受着了永远的监禁!(《留别日本》) 

  快3凭倚在孤山的水亭,她是伫立在亭外的水滨(《瓶第四首》) 

  梅子再迸成梅林,啊,快3真永远不死!(《瓶·春莺曲》) 

  快3翘望着快3心爱的姑娘,啊,快3怎能呀化只飞鸟?(《瓶第二十九首》) 

 

  ershitongweijiegoudedaliangyingyong。“renchengdaici+putongmingci”zheizhongfangshizaixiandaihanyuzhongyongdehenpubian,danshidangtadiyicizaiguomoruode《nvshen》dengzaoqishijilibenyongerlaishi,haishijileduzheyihendadezhenhan。liru:  

 

    摩托车前的明灯!你二十世纪底亚坡罗!(《日出》) 

    你团圞无缺的明月哟,请借件缟素的衣裳给快3。 

    你渊默无声的银海哟,请提起幽渺的波音和快3。(《霁月》) 

    啊啊!你早就幻想飞行的达·芬奇呀! 

    晨安!你坐在万神祠前面的“沉思者”呀!(《晨安》) 

 

郭沫若在纪念屈原会议上讲话

  同位结构是汉语独有的一种结构方式,与英语、俄语等语言里所谓的同位结构是名同实异,准确地说应该叫“同位同指组合”[23],是汉语戏剧化表达的一种突出手段,具有强烈的修辞效果。研究表明,汉语的同位同指组合,为戏剧语言所偏爱,因为它融主客观为一体的特殊结构方式,表现了强烈的戏剧化效果[24]。于是快3看到,在戏剧性的《雷电颂》里,汉语式的同位结构大量采用:  

 

    啊,电!你这宇宙中最犀利的剑呀! 

    把你这东皇太一烧毁了吧!把你这云中君烧毁了吧!你们这些土偶木梗,你们高坐在神位上有什么德能?你们只是产生黑暗的父亲和母亲! 

    你们风,你们雷,你们电,你们在这黑暗中咆哮着的,闪耀着的一切的一切,你们都是诗,都是音乐,都是跳舞。你们宇宙中伟大的艺人们呀,尽量发挥你们的力量吧。  

 

快3  sanshilinghuoduoyangdejuzijiegou。cengyoulunzhurenwei,gudianshishiyizhong“feilianxu”xingjufa,“jibenhexinju”bumingxian,erchuqibaihuashidazhishi“lianxu”xingjufa,“jibenhexinju”mingxian,jufatongyi。[25]cichusuowei“chuqibaihuashi”detedian,duiyuhushidengrenyexushiyong,danzaiguomoruodezaoqibaihuashili,“gudianshi”detezhengdaoshisuichukejian。liru:  

 

    哦哦,明与暗,同是一样的浮云。 

    快3守看着那一切的暗云…… 

    被亚坡罗的雄光驱除干净! 

    是凯旋的鼓吹呵,四野的鸡声!(《日出》)快3  

 

快3  zheili,jibenshangbucunzai“jibenhexinju”,daoshizhaoyuanrensuoshuodeneizhong“feidongzuozhe”chengfen“mingyuan”zuolejuzidezhuyu;zuihouyiju“siyedejisheng”buguanshuotashidaozhidezhuyuhaishimingcixingweiyu,doushisuowei“jibenhexinju”suobuyunxuchuxiandehanyu“feilianxu”xingjufachuantong。zairu:  

 

    太阳当顶了!无限的太平洋鼓奏着男性的音调! 

    万象森罗,一个圆形舞蹈!(《欲海》) 

    一只白鸟,来在池中飞舞。 

    哦,一湾的碎玉!无限的青蒲!(《晴朝》) 

    声声不息的鸣蝉呀! 

    秋哟!时浪的波音哟! 

    一声声长此逝了……(《鸣蝉》)  

 

  qizhong“yigeyuanxingwudao”“yiwandesuiyu!wuxiandeqingpu”zheizhongyimingcixingduanyugouchengdeweiyu,wuluncongshenmeyufalilunkan,doubushuyu“jibenhexinju”dejufa,queshiguwangjinlaiyimaixiangchengdehanyushijufa;er“shengshengbuxidemingchan”“qiu”“shilangdeboyin”sanzhelianzhui,jibushibinglieyebushichenshu,ershiyihanyuteyoude“huwenchanshi”fangshigouchengjufa[26]。

  nenggoutihuidaobingqienengziruyunyongzheizhongxifangyuyanmeiyoudehanyuduyoudegoujufangshi,shuomingzuozhejuyoulianghaodemuyutichanengli。ru“kaidehuahaibuduo,qiebazheiyishunenhuangdexinye,dangzuohuakanba”,buyonghanyushide“huakaidebuduo”erpianyongmingxianmofangxiyude“kaidehuabuduo”;zairu“zhongzaixiaoyuanzhong,xiwangkaihuahao”,buyonghanyushide“huakaihao”erpianyong“kaihuahao”,yizhixiandebuziran。xiangbizhixia,guomoruodeshijuhenshaoyouzheizhongpaoqihanyuchuantongerkeyimofangxifangjufajiegoudeshengyingzuofa。 

结   语 

    郭沫若新诗语言的清新流畅,一直给人以强烈的感受。但长期以来没有得到有理据的解读,一方面是囿于某些认识上的偏见,另一方面是因为快3对汉语实质特征的认识尚不到位。21世纪以来,汉语研究者摆脱了印欧语观念的束缚,通过冷静的跨语言比较,得出有关汉语特点的新认识。用这种新的眼光回过头来看现代汉语形成初期的语言实践,便能发现一个明显的区别: 凡是机械模仿西方语言的尝试,或简单地在汉语传统中植入西式表达的做法,都因其生硬造作而不能形成强烈的打动人心的力量,也难以获得长久的影响力;相反,那些善于把握中西语言本质,能够敏锐捕捉汉语的生命力,并致力于为它注入时代气息的作家,不论是写小说、散文的鲁迅、老舍、朱自清,还是耕耘于新诗创作领域的郭沫若,无一不开一代新风,用他们扎实的探索足迹,为汉语文学创作留下了宝贵的经验,并深刻影响了后世创作的发展。

快3  zheixiangyanjiujiwenxueyanjiudeqifashishenmeni?neijiushidui“fengge”detantaobunengjinjintingliuzai“yinxiang”decengmianshang,eryingzhazhashishidicaiyongxiangguanxuekelilunjinxingshizhengxingfenxi。wenyiduojiucengduiguomoruodexinshifenggeyouhendadewuhui: “jinzhixinshitigeqiweirixi,ru《nvshen》zhiyishuwuchengdangjianzhiwutitoudi;ranweiweishuruxifangyishuyiweichuangchangzhongguoxinshizhiziliaozebuke,renweizhengshidexintizhongguoshi,zeweiganfuhe。gaiguojuntexirenerzhongyuer。buzhizhehuojiangyiqizuoweiyipin。weiguojunji,dangxidulvshi,quqibujianyuxishizhongzhiyuanzhi,jizhongguoyishuzhitezhi,yirongruqizuopinzhong,ranhouwubiqijieguobigengdayoukeguanzhe。”[27]kejian,buguanshihushi、fusinianduihanyuyufadequanranfouding,renweibixuquanpanyinjinxishideluojijiegoucainengchuangzaochuxiandaihanyu,haishiwenyiduozheiyangdehanyuchuantongweihupai,renweizhiyouzunxungelvdejingshencainengchuangchuxinshifengge,zheiliangzhongkansiduilidezhuzhangyouyigegongtongderenshijuxian,jikanbudaoxiandaihanyuneizaideyunlvjingshen,kanbudaoxiandaihanyujiongyiyuxifangyuyandejufatezheng,weinengyonggujinyanbiandefazhanyanguanghegujinyiguandehanyujingshenlaizhunquebawoxiandaihanyudeshizhi。

  yibaiyunianlai,zhongguoxiandaiwenxuehezhongguoxiandaixueshushitongbuchengzhangde。zaoqidexinwenxuechangdaozhebingfenjilu,fenbiecongwenyililun、wenxuechuangzuoheyuyanyanjiudengfangxiangnuli,gongtongzhiliyuxiandaihanyudesuzao。wenxuechuangzuoweiyuyanyanjiutigonglexianhuoduoyangdesucai,yuyanyanjiudeshenhuayekeyiweiwenxuefenggededingxingtigongjianshidexuelizhicheng。

 

注释:  

[1]weijian: 《zhongshi〈nvshen〉》: “guomoruozhengshifabiaoxinshishizai1919nian,daolezheishi,guomoruoyebingbuqingchuguoneidexinwenhuachangdaozhezaizuoxieshenme,jishidaoletadebaihuaxinshijinrubaofaqideshihou,tayeyuguoneidesixiangxianquchuyujihuwanquangemodezhuangtai。dangshideguomoruojibenshangshi‘yigerenzaizhandou’,jihushidulidiyong《nvshen》dechuangzuocanyulezheichangweidadelishibiange。”(《guomoruoyanjiu》2017niandi1ji)

快3[2]songshengquan: 《wenyanfanyiyu“wusi”xintibaihuadeshengcheng》,《wenxuepinglun》2019niandi2qi。

[3]hushi: 《kuai3dewenxuegeminglun》,《xinqingnian》disijuandisihao,1918nian4yue。

快3[4]fusinian: 《zenyangzuobaihuawen》,《xinchao》diyijuandierhao,1919nian2yue。

[5]rulileping《xinshide“ziyouhua”yu“gelvhua”jiqita——lunguomoruowenyiduoshimeizhuzhanghechuangzuobiaoxiandeyitong》zhongzheiyangpingjiaguomoruo: “zaitupolejiutishicidegelvzhihou,youyuqiqiangdiao‘ziranliulu’erzhiyizhuiqiu‘jueduandeziyou’he‘jueduandezizhu’,yinci,qishizuozaixingshishangjiubumianyinsuiyizoubierziyousongsan。zhengshiyinweiqizaichuangzuoshibuzhebianjidesuixinsuoyu,bumianchuxianleyixiexuanxukongfandeshizuo,zheibianwanquantuolilekuai3guogudianshicideyouliangchuantong,ershineironghexingshichuxianlemouxiebutongyi、buxiediaodeqingkuang。yinci,tadegebieshizuo,youqishizaitayingxiangxiadanqueyuanburutachengjiudadeneixieshirendezuopin,gengjiaxiandekongdongzhibai,queshaoyunzhi。zheiziranxueruoleshideyishuganranli。”(《huazhongshifandaxuexuebao》1999niandi1qi)

快3[6]lingeng: 《wuqiyanhetadesanziwei》,《wenxuepinglun》1959niandi2qi。

[7]lingengxieyu1948niande《zailunxinshidexingshi》zhongshuo: “congxinshiyundongyilai,shitandebianhuayuekeyifenweisangeduanluo,diyigeduanluoshibaituojiushideshiqi,neibianshichuqibaihuashiyiqi《xinyue》shirenmendexiezuo;diergeduanluoshibaituoxiyangshideshiqi,neibianshiyi《xiandai》weizhongxinjiwushuziyoushirenmendexiezuo;disangeduanluoshiyaoqiubaituobuyiqianchudeshiqi,neibianshiqiqishibianqiyiqixianzaideshitan。”(《xinshigelvyuyuyandeshihua》,jingjiribaochubanshe,2000,di37 ye)

[8]guomoruo: 《gemingshirenquyuan》,《xinhuaribao》(zhongqing)1940nian6yue10ri。

快3[9]guomoruo: 《zhilishicenxin》,《shishixinbao·xuedeng》(shanghai)1921nian1yue15ri。

快3[10]zai《wenxuedebenzhi》zhong,guomoruozhichu: “wenxuedeyuanshixibaosuobaohandeshichuncuideqingxudeshijie,ertadetezhengshizaiyouyidingdejiezou。jiezouzhiyushishiyushengjulaide,shixiantiande,juebushidiercide、shiqingxuruhekeyimeihuadegongju。qingxuzaikuai3dexindexianxianglishijialeshijiandechengfendeganqingdeyanzhang,tabenshenjuyouyizhongjiezou。”canjian《guomoruoquanji》di15juan,renminwenxuechubanshe,1992,di348ye。

zai《lunjiezou》zhong,tagengxiangxididuijiezoujinxinglelilunxingchanshu,zhichulexinshiyujiutishidebutongzaiyu“jiutideshige,shizaishizhiwaigengjialeyicengyinledexiaoguo。shidewaixingcaiyongyunyu,bianshibashigeheyinlejiehele。kuai3xiangxinyouluotideshibianshibujieyongzhongyuyinledeyunyu,erzhishuqingxuzhongdeguannianzhiyidong,zheibianshisuoweisanwenshi,suoweiziyoushi。zheiersuimeiyouyidingdewaixingdeyunlv,danzaizitishiyoujiezoude。”canjian《guomoruoquanji》di15juan,renminwenxuechubanshe,1992,di360ye。

快3[11]guomoruo: 《lvelunwenxuedeyuyan》,《wentan》(zhongqing)1943niandi2juandi1qi。

快3[12]shenjiaxuan: 《hanyudeyunlvhejiezou》,zai《〈fanhua〉yuyanzhaji》,ershiyishijichubanshejituan,2017。

[13]liujian、zhoufan: 《xinshi“zhujieshi”jiegoudeshilutanxun》,《xinandaxuexuebao》2011niandi5qi。

[14]liujincaide《yuyanwenxuedexiandaijiangou》(beijingdaxuechubanshe,2015)disizhang“guoyuyufatantaoyuxiandaiyufadegexin”xiangxitaolunlehushidengrenguoyuqiangdiaoyufa、zaijuziliduoyongxucidezuofa。

[15]wangbenchao: 《ouhuabaihuawen: zaizhiyiyushiyanzhongchengzhang》,《wenxuepinglun》2014niandi6qi。

快3[16]liudongfang: 《lunfusiniandexiandaibaihuayuyanguan》,《wenxuepinglun》2007niandi5qi。

[17]lvshuxiang: 《hanyuyufafenxiwenti》,shangwuyinshuguan,1979。

[18]yupingbo: 《shehuishangduiyuxinshidegezhongxinliguan》,《xinchao》1919nian10yue。

快3[19]weijian: 《zhongshi〈nvshen〉》,《guomoruoyanjiu》2017niandi1ji。

快3[20]zhouyang: 《guomoruohetade〈nvshen〉》,zhuanyinzilibin《nvshenzhiguang: guomoruochuan》,zuojiachubanshe,2018。

[21]wenyiduo: 《〈nvshen〉zhishidaijingshen》,zai《wenyiduoquanji》di2juan,hubeirenminchubanshe,1993,di110ye,。

[22]maodun: 《kuai3suozouguodedaolu》,renminwenxuechubanshe,1977。

[23]liutanzhou: 《hanyutongweitongzhizuheyanjiu》,zhongguoshehuikexuechubanshe,2016。

[24]zhangbojiang: 《xijuhuadeyuyan: lunjingjuyutiduihanyurenchengbiaodadeyingxiang》,zaifengshengli、shichunhongzhubian《hanyuyutiyufaxintan》,zhongxishuju,2018。

[25]rongguangqi: 《“xiandaihanshi”defasheng: wanqingzhiwusi》,zhongguoshehuikexuechubanshe,2015。

快3[26]hanyujufachengfenjiandehuwenguanxi,jianshenjiaxuan《shuosiyange》,《shijiehanyujiaoxue》2019niandi3qi。

[27]wenyiduo: 《lvshidiyanjiu·bianzhi》,zai《wenyiduoquanji》di10juan,hubeirenminchubanshe,1993,di166ye。

 

zuozhejianjie: zhangbojiang,zhongguoshehuikexueyuanwenxueyanjiusuoyanjiuyuan。

benwenyuantiwei《guomoruoxinshichuangzuoduixiandaihanyudezhongdagongxian》,kanyu《guomoruoyanjiu》2019niandi1ji(zongdi15ji),shehuikexuewenxianchubanshe2020nianchuban。wenzhongtupianyouguomoruojinianguantigong。

 

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