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中国文学网

爱与性的执著探索

竺家荣
         自1998年本人翻译了渡边淳一的《失乐园》后,十二年过去了。此次,作家出版社推出的全译本《失乐园》,将真实地展现原著的全貌,为快3国读者奉献一部完整的《失乐园》。只有在当今这样包容、理性的中国社会,才有可能实现《失乐园》全译本的出版,也只有一部完整的《失乐园》,才能完整地呈现渡边淳一思考与观察的范围与深度,使广大渡边文学爱好者能够欣赏到“货真价实”的《失乐园》。

  zuoweiyizhelaishuo,zaiqianyibenzhongmeiyounenggouzunxun“xindaya”deyuanze,guranyoubudeyideyuanyin,danbijingshigeyihan。xianzaiyoujihuinenggoulaimibu,zheibujinshiduizuozheyuanzhudezunzhong,yeshisheji“yide”dewenti。dangran,yuxiaoshuodezhutixiangguanlian,shuzhongyoudaliangdexingaimiaoxie。zheizhongchengdudemiaoxiejibianzairibenwenxuezhongyeshibuduojiande,keyishuodadaoledengfengzaojidechengdu。bujinzuozheyaoyouyongqilaixie,yizheyexuyaoyouyongqilaifanyi。

  《shileyuan》1997nianyijingribenjiangtanshechuban,bianyinqilejidadeshehuifanxiang,chengweikongqiandechangxiaoshu。xiaoshuodeshuminghaihuodeleriben1997nianliuxingyudajiang。《shileyuan》cengxianhougaibianchengdianyinghelianxuju,xingchenglejingjiubushuaide《shileyuan》xianxiang,yechengweiledubianchunyiqingaiwenxuedezuigaodaibiaozuo。1998nianchuyijiedaozhongguohou,yetongyangshidubianchunyizaidaluyongyoulehengaoderenqi,congci,tadexuduozuopinbeiluxujieshaodaolezhongguo,chengweizhongguoduzheshuzhideribendangdaizuojia。

  youyudubianchunyizuopinderexiao,yezaochenglechubandehunluan,qinquan、daobandengcengchubuqiong。yinci,dubianxianshengweileguifandaludubianchunyizuopindechubanshichang,congjinqikaishi,dubianchunyidezuopinzhishouquanjizhongguodaluliangjiachubanshe,qizhongyijiashizuojiachubanshe。zuojiachubanshejinqiluxutuichude“dubianchunyi·jingpinxiaoshuozhenzang”xilie、“dubianchunyi·liangxingguanxiduben”xilie、“dubianchunyi·yiliaopujishouce”xiliegongshiben,jishizheiyizhengdunhoudechengguo。

  dubianchunyiqiyicongwensishiduonianlai,fabiaoleyibaisanshiduobuzuopin,qizhongbaokuowushiyubuzhangpianxiaoshuo,duobuzhongduanpianxiaoshuoyijisuibi、sanwen、chuanji、duitanji、shaoliangdeyixuezhuanzhudeng。xiaoshuofangmiankefenweisidalei。yishichuanjitixiaoshuo。ru《huazang》(ribendiyiweinvyishengdiyeyinzichuanji)、《yaoyuandeluori》(xijunxuejiayekouyingshichuanji)。ershiyixuexiaoshuo。ru《guangyuying》《wuyingdeng》《meilidebaigu》deng。sanshinannvqingaixiaoshuo。ru《hunguiahan》《paomo》《yipianxue》《aideliufangdi》《fuleyuan》。sishiyixuejiaqingaixiaoshuo。ru《honghua》deng。daibiaoxingdesuibiyou《kuai3shangganderenshenglvcheng》《nanrenzheidongxi》《nvrenzheidongxi》《dunganli》《yuqingke》deng。

  youbushaoduzheduidubianchunyiheyizaixiaoshuozhongbuyanqifandimiaoshuneixienannvxingaidechangmianbushenlijie,diandaoweizhinandaobukeyima?neime,daodiyinggaizenyanglaiyuedudubiandewenxueni?zuozheweishenmejiarurucidaliangdexingaimiaoxieni?xiamiantantangerendeyidianxiangfa,jingongduzhecankao。

  dubianchunyizai32suishi(1965nian),jiuyixiaoshuo《siwanghuazhuang》zhengshidengshangribenwentan,qiqianqizuopindaduojinkoushengsizhuti,miaoxierenwukankedemingyun,tongchangbeichengwei“yixuexiaoshuo”。

  50suiqianhoutakaishishezuaiyuxing、hunwaiqingfangmiandeticai。zuopinjihudouweiraozhongnianrenqingganjiuge,tebieshixianrubulunzhiaidenannvqingaizhankai。daozhizheiyizhuanbiandeqiji,shitadeyixieqinshentiyan。ji:

  “yixueshitongguotanjiuroutidadaolixingdejielun,erxiaoshuozeshicongjingshenshangtanjiulilunwufajiejuedewenti。congyixuedejiaodu,kuai3kandaolerenzuiroutidedongxi;congzuojiadejiaodu,kuai3kandaolerenzuibenzhidedongxi。dangran,liangzhedouxuyaoduirendeai,doubixuduirenjuyoushenkedeguanhuai。”

  “aiyusishiliangduandedongxi,youshixiangguanliandedongxi,nenggouduikangsiwangdeshiai。kuai3cengjingkanguoyouyigelinsidebingren,yinweikongjubutingzhandou,danshidangairenzaitadeshenbianzhuazhutadeshoushi,tajiunenggouzhendingxialai,sihuwangjilesidekongju。kuai3xiangnenggouzhengjiusiwangdeweiyilujingkenengjiushiaile。kuai3kandaolezheimeduodeduisiwangdekongju,caigengyuanyixieguanyuaiqingdedongxi。”

  dubiancongzheiyangdeshimingganchufa,shushinianlaizhuanzhuyunannvqingaidetansuo,jinguanyudaozhongzhongdehuiyubaobian,rengranshizhibuyudizoudaolejintian。qiebulunzenyangpingjiatadewenxue,jinjincongtaduiyishudequanshenxintourulaikan,bushiyizhongkeguidejingshenma?

  dubiandezuopinjinguanticaibujinxiangtong,dandouguanchuanlecongwaikeyishengdejiaoduduirendexinli、shengli,zhuyaoshixingxinlideshenruguanchahejiepou。tazoushangwentandediyibuxiaoshuo《siwanghuazhuang》bianshixinlifenxixiaoshuo。dangranzheizhongjiepoubushishoushudao,ershibiganzi。keyishuo,zaichongfentixianyishengzheiyizhiyetediandezuojiafangmian,tashidiyiren。

  jingguoduoniandeyishuheshenghuojilei,zaidubianchunyiliushiduosuishi,zhongyudanshengle《shileyuan》zheiyangdejiazuo。shuzhongmiaoxieleyiduizhongniannannv,gezipaoqilewuaidejiating,xianrulehunwaiqingdexuanwo,tamenweilezhuiqiuzhenaibuxipaoqiyiqie,zuizhongxuanzeleyiqixunqing,weiaifuchuleshengmingdedaijia。ciqian,zuozheyexieguoqingjieleisidexiaoshuo,danjiejudouhenhanhu。《shileyuan》zuihoudeqingsijiejuzhenhanrendexinling,yeshizuozheduoniantansuodejieguo。

  aiqingticaiyuanbenchangshuochangxin,erhunwaiqingfangmiandeticaigengshiyouruwanhuatongbanxuanlanduocai。shijiegeminzudoubufacileiticaidewenyizuopin。wenxueyishuzhuiqiudezhigaojingjie,shizhenshanmei。guwangjinlai,wushudewenxuejia、yishujiawubuzaizhuiqiuzheigejingjie,danquehennanqiji,wangwanghuigucishibi。jutidaoaiqingfangmiandeticailaishuo,“shan”shifoukeyihangai“mei”huo“zhen”?sanzhejiujingshizenyangdeguanxi?zenyangcaisuanshiwanmeidetongyi?kongpadoushixuyaobuduantanjiudeketi。

  gegeminzudouyouzijidedaodeguanheshenmeiguan,faguorendelangmanqinghuai,yingguorendeshenshifengdu,meiguorendefengliutitang,zhongguorendefahuqingzhihulidejunzizhifeng,bianshigeminzutuichongdedaodemoshi。erribenziguyilai,jiuquefaduixingdejinji,oumeidejidujiao、zhongguoderujiadouchongbaichunv、zhencao,ribenquemeiyouzheixiangchuantong,yincizaixingdaodefangmianbijiaokuansong。biru,ribensengrenguozhehechangrenyiyangdeshenghuo,yijicengjingyouguonannvgongyudefengsudengdeng。ruguonabenminzudedaodechiduquhengliangqitaminzushenmeiguandehua,kongpajiuhuixiangliulaolaojindaguanyuanyiban,shaojianduoguaile。

  yinci,lejieyixiaribenrenduiaiyuxingdedaodeguanheshenmeiguan,duidubianwenxuedejieduhuiqidaoyidingdezuoyong。

  ribenrenshenmeiyishidechengxingyaozhuisudaozuizaodeshishu《gushiji》,hegeji《wanyeji》,zhonggushiqide《yuanshiwuyu》,yigesonghechongbainannvqingaiweizhuyaoneirongdezheixiegudian,diandingleribenhaosewenxuedejidiao。jingguozhongshijiwushiwenhuadeyayihuochendian,daolejinshidejingyuanxihedexiaoshuo,yijijinsongmenzuoweimendejingliuli、gewujijubendeng“haose”、“qingsi”wenyizuopinshi,fandanbandadaoledingfeng。yinci,ziguyilai,ribenwenxuedaduoyiaiyuxingweizhuti,zhujianxingchengleribenwenxuedehaoseshenmeiqingqu。jiribenshidawenlunzhiyide“yanqing”。raner,zaibieguorenkanlai,shizaishinanyilijie。yizhiyu,jushuomingzhichuqi,yingguoxuezhezhangbolunfuriliuxue,dasuanjiangribenshenhua《gushiji》yichengyingwenchuban,jieguojingbeiwurenweishiseqingxiaoshuo。

  ribenyulide“haose”buxianghanyudehaoseneiyangdaiyoubianyidesecai,erzhezhijianyouzheweimiaodechayi。riyulide“haose”shizhuiqiulianaiqingqudeyisi,yuwuai、fengyadengmeiyishixiangtong,bingfeibeisudeseqing。haoseshenmeichuantongjingguoshangqianniandechuancheng,yizhirongguandaojinxiandairibendelangmanzhuyi、ziranzhuyi、weimeizhuyidengwenxueliupaizhizhong。qizhongguqirunyilanghechuanduankangchengwenxuezuijudaibiaoxing。aiyuzaiweimeipaizuojiayanzhongyudaodelunliwuguan,tashizuoweiyizhongshenmeizhitaiercunzaide,yiroutiyuwangdequanmianjiefangweishenmeidejizhi。

  ranerdaoledangdairiben,zheiyihaoseshenmeichuantongsihuhoujiwurenle。ruguoshuo,ribendangdaizuojiazhong,yousheizuijiejinzheiyichuantong,neimefeidubianchunyimoshule。jinguantabenrenfourenzijidewenxueshuyuhaosewenxue,dantaqingqiyisheng,ziziyiqiudezhengshilingyurouxianghuxiediaodemeixueyiyishangdedongxi。keyishuojiyouyujindaiweimeipaidashiguqirunyilangshensizhichu,yeyouqidujutesezhidian。

  aiyuxingshirenleishenghuohewenxueyishudezhongyaomuti,duiyuaiyuxingdewanmeijiehebianchengweirenleiduimeideyizhongzhizhuzhuiqiu。aiyuxingshibukefenlide,xingshiaidejieguo,ruguojiangaiyuxingshunxudiandao,jiubeililemei,xingjiubianchenglechuncuiderouyu。xingzhiyouyiaiweijichucaishiwanmeidejiehe。yueshiwanmeidejiehezejulimeidejingjieyuejin。zheiyeshidubiandezuopinxianggaosurenmende。

  dubianyipingzijideqieshentiyan,congzhenqingshiganchufa,congshenglixinlijiaodulaishenrutantaoaiyuxingdeguanlian,zuizhongdechuleyigeshunlichengzhangdejielun: yaohuodezhenzhengdeqingai,zaihunyinzhineishihennande。zheiyeshizuozhejingguoduoniantanqiudechulaide。yejiushishuo,congmouzhongyiyishangshuo,shanhemei、aiyuxingshiwufahuxiangtidaide,zhenzhengdewanmeidetongyishihennandadaode,jibiandadaoleyeshihennanchijiude。zhurengongzuizhongxuanzeleqingsizeshikeyishizhenaidinggedeweiyifangfa。

  yiqingbielian,shiduihunyindebuzhong,shiweibeishehuidaodede,shichuyuxixinyanjiudexinli。zheixiezai《shileyuan》li,doubeishedingweishisudekanfa。erliangweizhurengongzhengshiyaofankangshisude“pianjian”,caiyiranlikaijiating,zoushangbuguilude。zheiyiqingsidejieju,kongpashitichuleyigezhishenzhinandewenti。sihuzaigaosushiren,renshengbenshenjiushigebeilun。renmenzhuiqiudedongxiyutamenshijishenghuozhijian、renmendemengxiangyuxianshizhijiancunzaizhechaju。zuozheweirenmenmiaoshudeshimengxiang,huozheshuoshiyizhonglixiang,keyishishirencongzhongdedaomouzhongxuanxie。zheiyejiushuomingle,weishenmeyouneimeduodehuiyubaobian,querengyouneimeduorenzaikandubiandezuopin。

  《shileyuan》deqingsijiejuyujingyuanxihe、jinsongmenzuoweimendeqingsiticaizuopinyimaixiangcheng。jingyuanxihedehaosexiaoshuoyinannvxunqinglaibiaoxianduijianghushidaiduiaiyuxingdeyayidefankang。zai《shileyuan》li,zeshiliangrenaidaobunengfenli,youpajiehunhouaiqinglengque,yushixuanzeleyiqiqusi,yiqiuaideshenghuaheyongheng。

  haibixutidaodeshi,dubiandezuopinjibenshanghezuozhedeqingganjinglitongbu,gengzengtianlezhenshigan,yetixianleribenwenxuede“sixiaoshuo”tese。

  dubianchunyizai《kuai3shangganderenshenglvcheng》zhongxielezijizaiaiqingfangmianqinshendejingli。xuduozuopindoushiyizuozhedeqinshenjingliweiyuanxingde。tajiehunhoucengjingheyiweinvxing(cengjingdelianren)baochihunwailianhenduonian,nvfangshijiaoshouhuadaodejiaoshi,xihuanchuanhefu,zuihouduifangyinhuanaizheng,zishale。zheiyangdeshenghuojileizaojiule《paomo》《shileyuan》《aideliufangdi》yiji《fuleyuan》dengbiaoxiandangdairendeqingaijiazuo。

  neime,yinggairuhelijiedubianxianshengchuangzuo《shileyuan》dengyixilieqingaizuopindechuzhongni?

  dubianxianshengjiu《shileyuan》dechuangzuozhuticengshuoguo:

  “zhisuoyikuai3zai《shileyuan》zhongzuoleneiyangdemiaohui,shiyinweikuai3youyizhongweijigan,kuai3gandaorenleiyijingmishilezijideyuandian,tamenbuzhidaozaigaodufadadewenmingshehuidefanxiangjishang,kuai3renleichongqiliangbuguoshidongwu,jiranzuoweishengmingdewutilaidaolezheigeshijie,kuai3jiuyinggairangzijideshengminggengjiacanlan,zhongxinhuanhuishengwubenyingyoudeciyuxiongdeshengmingguanghui。《shileyuan》dechufadian,jiushizaibiaoxianshengmingzhutizhiyideaizhong,litubaohanxingaidejuedui。

  “lingrenxinweideshi《shileyuan》yinqilefanxiang,kuai3renweizheishiyinweixuduorenneixinshenchuchiyoutongyangdeweijigan,tamenduirenleizhongxinhuidaociyuxiongdeyuandianhuaiyoubennengdechongjingyuqidai。zongeryanzhi,kuai3xiwangneizhongqiangporenmenshuncongtongyijiazhiguande、lingrenzhixideshidainenggouzaibenshijishouzhongzhengqin。”

  ribenweimeiwenxuedajiaguqirunyilanghechuanduankangchengdeng,douzaitamendewenxuezhong,duiyuzhonglaonianrendeaiqingyijixingaiyouguohenduojingcaidemiaoxie。dubianwenxueyutamenzheixieweimeiwenxuezuopinsuobiaoxianchulaideribenmeixuechuantongyimaixiangcheng,suobutongdeshi,guqihechuanduandewenxuezhezhongyucongmeixuejiaoduyijixingxinlijiaodulaitansuo,erdubianzechulemeixuehexingxinlijiaoduwai,haicongshenglijiaodu、shehuilunlijiaodulaiquanfangweitansuo。yinggaishuo,zheixietansuodoushifeichangyoujiazhide,juefeiyongsuyiyishangdeaiqingxiaoshuo。

  dubianxiaoshuoli,duixingxinlijixingaichangjingdemiaoxierumusanfen,quehaowuyinhuiganjue,zaijidangdeqingyuzhongliutangzhedandandeyoushanghewunai。nannvzhurengongtongguoroutidebuduanjiechueryibubujiashenzheizhongai,zuihoudadaoaidejizhi,jichunaiyuxingaidewanmeitongyi,zheishidubianwenxuezhuiqiudemubiao,shiyizhongweimeidezhuiqiu。jiangguannengxiangshouyuyouyaderenwupinwei、youmeidejijiezhuanhuan、youjingdechangjingxuanrandengdengqiaruqifendidiaopeizaiyiqi,jiangbianhuanwuqiong、diedangqifudexingaihongtuodepoyoushiqinghuayi,duhou,fangfoxinshangleyiquzhenhanxinlingdejiaoxiangle,lingrenhuiwei。zheiyezhengshiduiribenhaoseqingqudeyizhongquanshi。jingyuanxiheyoujumingyan: “zongshifangdang,xinlingyebuyinggaishiwochuode。”henhaodigaikuoleribenhaosewenxuedetezhi。

  xiaoshuozhongxingaichangjingzhiduo,lingrenjingya。danzheiyangdexuanranhepudianduiyuzuihoudejiejulaishuo,duiyuyizhuanmentantaonannvqingaizhutidezuopinlaishuo,kongpashibukehuoquede。dangran,dubianzheizhongdadandechuangzuo,shiyouyujuyoudanshengzheiyangdezuopindeturang。zheibujinyuribenminzudewenhuatexingyouguan,yeyuribenkuansongdewenxuechuangzuohuanjingyouguan。

  zaizheixiezhongjiwentidetantaoshang,shouxianbuyinggaishedingshenmekuangkuang,fouzewenyizuopinjiudengtongyujiaokeshule。jiulian《hongloumeng》zheiyangdegudianmingzhu,bushiyeyou“daoxuejiacongzhongkanjianyin”lema?pandingyibuzuopindeyoulie,yingkantashifourenzhendiqutansuorenxingdezhenshanmei,fanshijingdeqishijiankaoyande,kongpadoujuyouyidingdeshenmeijiazhi。fouze,cengjingbeilieru“huiyinhuidao”dejinshuzhiliede《jinpingmei》,yebuhuizaizhongguowenxueshishangzhanyouyixizhidile。

  zhongguoshangqiannianderujiaochuantong,shideaiyuxingzheiyangdezhongyaomuti,zaikuai3guojindaiwenyizuopinzhongyizhiqueshi,jibianbiaoxiannannvzhiaideticaiyeduoshidiandaoweizhi,zhiqidao“zuoliao”dezuoyong。yinciyouxielingleide《shileyuan》deyinjin,huiyinqibutongdefanxiang,danshi,renleidegongtongxingjianghuishitahuodezhongguoduzhedejieshou。

  《shileyuan》shiyibuyunhanzhefengfuwenhuaneihanyuyiguofengqingdeyouxiuzuopin,youqishizuozhecongyixuejiaodushenrutantao“nanrendexing”“nvrendexing”yijixianghuguanlian,“xing”yu“ai”dexianghuzuoyongdengdeng,doushihenshaoyouzuojiayuanyishezudejindi,queyoushizuijuyouxianshiyiyideketi。buguo,ruguozhishiyongsudijiangtakanzuoqingaijiaokeshu,kongpahuidaozhi“wudu”,wufashouhuozuopindezhendi。

  dubianxianshengshuoguo: “yongyijuhualaigaikuo,kuai3dezuopinshiyonglilunhuozheshidaodeshangdedongxiwufabiaoshuqingchude,danshiyoujuyouxianshixingdeqingganxiaoshuo。”

  shangmianzheifanhuatongyangshiyongyudubianxianshengdeqitazuopin。

  yizheligouzhuleaiyushengdefeicijibidemaodunchongtude《shileyuan》weidaibiaozuodedubianwenxue,shuodaodi,shiduishengyusi、aiyuxingdekaowen,shiduirenxingdeguanhuai。taqidaizaiershiyishijili,renmendeshiyegengjiakaikuo,nenggoulijiexingxingsesedejiazhiguan,zhenzhengshimeiyigerendounenggouhuodezuidaxianduderenshenziyou。ciwai,zaiyishengchushendedubiankanlai,xingaizaimouzhongyiyishang,haishikeyizhiyuyishengyijixinliyishengshushouwucedejihuandelingdanmiaoyao。

  zongshangsuoshu,yinggaishuozuozhebingfeiguchuixingaizhishangzhuyi,ershizaiqiangdiaogexingdeziyou。meigerendouyouhuodeziyouhexingfudequanli,renleishehuiyinggaiyunxuduoyuanjiazhidecunzai。ruguorenmendounengrenshidaobingqiezuodaozheiyidian,renleibianzhenzhenghuidaolexingfudeyidianyuan。

  dubianxianshengshuo: “zuoweizuojia,kuai3yaoxiedeshibuyuanyishouyayieryuanyiranshaozijide,zheiyangfeichangmeilidehuoyanbandezhurengong,zheishikuai3dezhuti。”yourenpingjiashuo,dubian“weishiqueqingchunmengxiangdezhongniannannvyingzaoleyipianhuanqingtiandi”;yeyourenshuo《shileyuan 》shi“jimeijiumeirenmeijingzhongmeiyishendefushihui”;kuai3xiangshuo,gaishudezhutisihukeyiyong“cibeiweihuai”laidingxing,yinweitashizaishiduirenshengyurenxingdeyizhongguanhuaihetixu。

  rendaozhongnian,anshuoyijingguolejiqingranshaodesuiyue,quebuganjimo,jibianranshaochenghuijin,yeyaozhuiqiujizhidemei,zheiyangde“aidejingying”bandezhurengong,juefeidengxianzhibei,juefeirenrenkeyiquzuo,danzheibutuoqulegonglisecai,zhuanzhuyumeidetiyan,bushijiaruyixiexingxinlifenxidexiaoshuo,huoxukeyishizhengrimangliuyushengjidezhongsheng,dedaoxinlingdezhiliao,shitamenjinzhangdexinjingdedaoyixiexuanxie,haobiyitaigaosuyunzhuandejiqixuyaorunhuajiyiban。kuai3buyoudexiangqile“wangmeizhike”zheigeci。yexuzheizhengshixiandairendeshenghuofangshiba。

  dubianwenxueyuelaiyueshoudaozhongguoduzhedehuanying,yeshuominglezhongguoduzhedexuqiuhexinshangshuiping。xiwangdubiandeqingaixiaoshuo,nenggoujizhongguoduzhedailaimeidexiangshouherouruandesiweifangshiyijiduiyushenghuodejiqing。zaici,yeduizuojiachubanshenenggouchuban《shileyuan》quanyiben,biaoshizhenchengdejingyi。

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