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“鲁滨逊”陷入恐慌的时刻

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  “鲁滨逊”陷入恐慌的时刻

  ——从《鲁滨逊漂流记》到《冷皮》

  阿尔韦特·桑切斯·皮尼奥尔,1965年生于西班牙巴塞罗那,人类学家兼作家。已出版《黄金时代》《小丑与野兽》等著作,并发表多篇短篇小说和杂文。第一部小说《冷皮》出版后获“西班牙评论之眼”小说奖。该书已被译成22种文字,流传于至少24个国家, 成为文学界和出版界一大现象。这也是西班牙的加泰罗尼亚语文学作品多年来首次在没有任何机构帮助的情况下,靠自身赢得国际赞誉。该书中文译本已由译林出版社出版。

  鲁滨逊: 朴素的英雄和上帝的见证

  tanlunhaiyangwenxue,kuai3huixiangqiyingguozuojiadannier·difuzhumingdezhangpianxiaoshuo《lubinxunpiaoliuji》。

  lubinxun·keluosuochushengyuzhongchanjiecengzhijia,yongyourenrendouxianmudeshenghuo。danlubinxunkewangmaoxian,shenzhijuyoudutujingshen,tajiandingdirenwei,weiyoudahainengweitakaituoguangkuodetiandi。zhongyu,dahaixiangtazhanluchucankudeyimian,hanjiandehainanbatapaoshangyizuohuangwurenyandegudao,xiaoshuogushi,congzheilizhenzhenglakaileweimu。hai、gudao,yushichengweiyizhongjiduanchujing,kaoyanzherendexinli、yizhiheshengcunnengli。mianduijiduanchujing,lubinxunmeiyoujuewangfengkuang,ershiweizijinengsilitaoshenggandao “linghundekuangxi”。zaiweinanshike,tajingranhainenglengjingdifenxichujing,xiwangweishirentigongjingyanhejiaoxun。tongshi,tayoushigexingdongzhuyizhe,weileshengcunzongzaibutingdicaiquyouxiaoxingdong。yushi,haihedao,congjiduanchujingbianchenglewuxiandebaozang。lubinxunyanranchengweidaode“junzhu”。

  duchugudao,sisuobianziranerran。zheizhongsisuo,yinlejiduanjinglihehuanjing,zhijiezhixianggenben。hai、dao、renheqitashengwu、shishangdeyiqie,daodishishenme,daodilaizihefang?zheishirenleidejibenwenti。lubinxunyibianbiandifawen。zaizuijiannan、zuikunhuodeshike,shangdichengweitadexinlingzhengjiuzhe。lubinxundangranshigeyingxiong,yucitongshi,tayeshishangdideyigezhengming。tadehuangdaoshengyachengxianchulelinghunbuduanjinghuadeguocheng,sixianghewuxingzhongzongshichongmanleshangdideyingzi。zaimouzhongchengdushang,kuai3shenzhijuede《lubinxunpiaoliuji》jueduisuanshiyibenbudaoshu。

  ruguodancongwenxuejiaodulaishuo,《lubinxunpiaoliuji》kenengsuanbushangyouxiudewenxuezuopin。dannier·difuyesuanbushangyouxiudexiaoshuojia。kuai3zongjuedexiaoshuoxiedecucao、suiyi、luosuo,jiegouyehenjiandan。tadejiazhiheyiyigengduodizhixiangjingshenhexinling。lubinxunzheiyijuyouteshujingliderenwu,buqubunao,zhimianxianshi,chongmanxiangshangdeliliang,wanquankeyichengweirenmendejingshendianfanhexinlingbangyang。shidaizaiciqidaolezhiguanzhongyaodezuoyong。difusuochushidaizhengshizibenzhuyiyuanshijileishiqi。lubinxunzheiyiwanqiangxingxiangyijixiaoshuowuyizhongtouludezhimin、kuozhanghekaituodengxinxi,wanquanfuheshangshengshiqizibenzhuyishehuideqidaiheyaoqiu。keyishuo,shishidairangzheibuxiaoshuochengweilejingdian。

  《冷皮》: 呈现现代社会的“鲁滨逊”

  shijianliushi,zai《lubinxunpiaoliuji》chubanjiangjinsanbainianzhihou,xibanyaxiaoshuojiaaerweite·sangqiesi·piniaoer((albert sánchez pinol)xiechuletadediyibuzhangpianxiaoshuo《lengpi》(la pell freda)。duhou,kuai3henrongyifaxiantatong《lubinxunpiaoliuji》dezhongzhongguanlian。

  tong《lubinxunpiaoliuji》yiyang,《lengpi》yecaiyongdiyirenchengxushu,zheizhongxushunenglajinzuopinheduzhedejuli。butongdeshi,zai《lengpi》zhong,zhurengongshilaiziaierlandewumingshi。shijianyeshimomohuhude,dayuezaiyizhanzhihou。wuming,hanhu,molengliangke,fanergengjupubianzhidaiyiyi。zheishixiandaihuohouxiandaixiaoshuoguanyongdeshoufa。

  congdiyishijian,daojiuchuxianzaikuai3mianqian。simianhuanhaidegudaoshi“kuai3”weilaideqishenzhidi,yeshigushidefashengzhidi。hai、gudao,tongyangdebeijinghuanjing,zhishiduolezuodengta,yijiyigelengmo、guaiyidedengtakanshourenbadisi。dengtadecunzai,rangkuai3kandaolexiandaishehuideyingzi。zaixiandaishehui,chuchudounengjiandaorendehenji,zheishiershishijitongshibashijidegenbenqubie。

  xiaoshuozhurengongdezitaiyejieranbutong。lubinxunliuluohuangdao,shibeipo,shiluonan,youqiangliedesumingdeyiwei。er《lengpi》zhongde“kuai3”queshichuyuduirenxing、duishehuidejuewang,erzhudongyaoqiulaidaonanjifujindegudaodanrenqixiangguanceyuan,qiwangzheyuanlirenqunheshehui,guozhenzhengziyouhedulideshenghuo。yinci,tadidahuangdaoshizikuai3xuanze,yeshitaobi。“kuai3taobideshimougegengdadezhigu,yuanchaoguoyiqiandezhigu。”congneixinshenchu,tahaiqiwangzhongxinweizijizhaodaoyigezuguo,yinweizaixianshishenghuozhong,tajuedezuguofangzhuleta,tayefangzhulezuguo。duzhenengyinyinjuechutadejuewang、youshang、guduheyanzhongdexinlingweiji,shitabudebuzoushangyitiaozhengjiuzhilu。ketashangxiaodaohou,taquexianrulegengweijiduandechujing: haiguaidebuduangongji。zheiweixiandaishehuide“lubinxun”shengmingsuishishoudaoweixie,xinlishikechongmankongju,nalihaitandeshangziyouheduli。zheishigejudadefanfeng,kongjujihuchengweitashenghuodequanbu。zaimouzhongchengdushang,kongjuyechengweilexiaoshuozhonglingyigewuyingwuxingquechuchucunzaidezhurengong。wumingzhurengongbudebuzhujindengta,yubadisilianshoukangjihaiguai。yicicidezhandouzhihou,zhurengongjusangdifaxian: renhenulidoushibaifei,zheixiehaiguaijiuxianghaiyiyangyongyuanwufaxiaomie。haizaizheiliyanbianchengmouzhongyinyu。nizhinengganzhitashenmieryouwuqiongdeliliang,quenanyixingrong。erzaiyicicishaluzhong,“kuai3”hebadisiderenxingzhengqiaoqiaofashengzhebianhua。

  zaishangdideguangmangxia,lubinxunsihumeiyoushoudaoyuwangdejiuchan。zheiyoudianfanchang,quefuheshibashijidedaodeheluoji。danzai《lengpi》huozaixiandaishehuili,shangdizaoyisile。daodeyeyimohulejiexian,shengcun、yuwangjiushidaode。badisilengku、jueqiang、chenmo,shenshishenmi,nanyijiejin,ziranyenanyixiangchu。wumingzhurengongtongbadisideguanxi,wanquanbutongyulubinxuntongxingqiwudeguanxi。badisibushipeichen,ershixiaoshuozhongdezhongyaojiaose,youzheqiangliedegexinghetebiedexinli。zhiyinmianduizhegongtongdediren,wumingzhurengongcaihebadisimianqiangweixizhecuiruoyouweixiandepingheng。

  badisishenbiangenzheyigenvhaiguai,shuyulengxuedongwu,quemeiliyichang。zhurengongzaizixiguanchahezhangqixiangchuhou,faxianlenvhaiguaishenshangzhuduofeidongwuxingdedongxi。tayouyishiheganqing,geshengwanrutianlai: “neizhichongwuhengzheyishouzhuisuyaoyuanbalidaodegeyao,yiduannanyixingrongdexuanlv,yiqumeiyouwuxianpudeyinle。duoshaorenleicengjingtingguozheishougeyao?congqichudehundunshidai,congrenleishirenleideshidai,duoshaorencengjingxiangcitequanlingtingguozheiquyinle?erqingtingzheiquyinlederenshifouzaimouxieshikedoumianlinzuihouyizhan?neishikongjudezanmeigeyao,neishiyemandezanmeigeyao……”yigewentizai“kuai3”hebadisitounaozhongchuxianle: “tashishei?”zheigewentimaotouzhizhirenleizhongxinlun。pipan、fansihejuexingyoucizhankai。zhurengongxingwudao: xiaodaoshihaiguaimenweiyiyongyoudetudi,errenleishiqinlvezhe。tamenjingong,shijishangshizaihanweizijidetudi。nvhaiguaigengxianggeshizhe——haideshizhe,yongshentihegeshenglaitongrenleitanpan。zaixiaoshuozuihou,zhurengongfuyulenvhaiguaiyigemingzi: anneilisi。zheishijiyouyiweideyibi: zhurengongwumingwuxing,eryuanshuyudongwudenvhaiguaiqueyongyoulerendemingzi。

  cong“tashishei?”ziranerrandiyinshenchule“tamenshishei?”neixiehaiguaidaodishishei?zheiyiwenticonggenbenshangdongyaolebadisidejingshenzhizhu,yiqiekaishidiandao。renyudongwu,jiexianjiujingzainali?xingxu,tamencaishizhenzhengdeyingxiong,errenleishijishangshiqiangdao。badisizhongyushiquleshengcundeliyou,zhihaojieshuzijideshengming。nairenxunweideshi,yinianhou,dangxindeqixiangguanceyuandengshangxiaodaoshi,wumingzhurengongyijingbianchengyemanren,sihuwanquanzoudaolerenleideduilimian。

  对《鲁滨逊漂流记》的深刻颠覆

  zuozhepiniaoerpianaijianjie、zhibaidefengge。tacengbiaoshi: “wanmeidejuzizuihaozhiyousigezi。”jianjie,quenengyingzaoqifen,quenengshenruxinli,quenengzhizhibenzhi,quenenglaolaozhuazhuduzhedemuguang。zheishiyimenyishu。biqi《lubinxunpiaoliuji》,《lengpi》gengweininglian,jiezoujinhufengkuang,qingjiejinzhangdaorangrenchuanbuguoqilai,congjiegoushangkan,xianranyouyibufenxifangle《lubinxunpiaoliuji》。zuopinzhongyeyouyixiepianzhangyourijigoucheng,danyibudanchunshijishi,daduoshizaitantaozhexueherenxingwenti。《lubinxunpiaoliuji》xiangpianbaogao,shijishixingde、liushuizhangshide、xianshizhuyide,yuduzhetiedehenjin;er《lengpi》xianggeyuyan,shiqishixingde、xiandaizhuyide,yaoqiuduzheshenrusisuo。《lubinxunpiaoliuji》shigesongxingde,shulileyigeyingxiong、yigeshangdidexuanmin;er《lengpi》zeshipipanxingde,shulilelianggefanyingxiong、lianggeshangdiherenleide“qier”。《lubinxunpiaoliuji》chengxiandeshishengcunnengli;《lengpi》tantaodezeshicunzaideyiyi。ruguoshuo《lubinxunpiaoliuji》shilixianxiaoshuodehua,neime《lengpi》jiuyinggaibeiguiruzhelixiaoshuohuoyuyantixiaoshuo。dantayouyoulixianxiaoshuo、jingsongxiaoshuohekehuanxiaoshuodeyuansu。gengzhunquedishuo,zuozhechenggongdijianglixianxiaoshuo、jingsongxiaoshuo、kehuanxiaoshuoheyuyantixiaoshuorongweiyiti,bingshangshengdaolezhelidegaodu。ruguoshuo《lubinxunpiaoliuji》chongmanleshibashijidejingshenhelixiangdehua,《lengpi》zebaohanleershiyishijidekunhuo、lunsanghefansi。zaiyiqiedouyimohudeshidai,kuai3hainengfoubaocunyouruhebaocunkuai3neixinzhongderenxing?renleishifoujiushizheishijieweiyidezhuren?kuai3jiujingyinggaiyizenyangdezitaimianduiqitadeshengming?kuai3gairuheheziranxiangchu?kuai3cunzaideliyouheyiyiyoushishenme?zheishixiaoshuotichudejibenwenti。kuai3nengganjuedaozuozhedebeiguanzhuyitaidu,tawufahuida,dahaiyewufahuida。“xueqiangpozhouzaochenjixialai。zhidaocikezhiqian,haiyanghaishiqingweidesaodongbuan,quezhourananjingxialai,shoudaokanbujiandeminglingzhangkong。huoxu,zheijiangshikuai3zaishijiansuojiandezuihoujingxiang,daojinlebeiliangyupingyongdemei。”shiyi、leng、beiliang、youshang、gudu、kongju,zaizheiyikeronghezaiyiqi。haizaichengxiandetongshi,yezaijiena。haidewuxianyiwei,renleinengzhenzhengdudongma?

  tongyangmianduidahai,keyizhanzaibutongdegaodu。difukandaodehaijingzhongyoucaifu、heinu、lixian,youshangdidexingxiang。erpiniaoerkandaodehaijingzhongyiyourenleidebeiaihemoridebeiliang。“kuai3congweiwanquanyuanlikuai3suohen;yinci,kuai3yeyongyuanbunengzhenzhengjiejinkuai3suoai。”zheishirenleidegangajingyu。congdifudaopiniaoer,cong《lubinxunpiaoliuji》dao《lengpi》,congshibashijidaoershishiji,yigezhidefeiyueyijingfasheng,neijiushicongxianshidaocunzai。kundelarenwei,“xiaoshuoweiyicunzaideliyoujiushiqufaxianweiyouxiaoshuocainengfaxiandedongxi”,zheijiushirende“juticunzai”。“xiaoshuobuyanjiuxianshi,ershiyanjiucunzai。”yinci,kundelayizaibiaoshi: “xiaoshuojiajibushilishixuejia,yebushizhengzhijia,ershi‘cunzai’dekantanzhe。”tongguoyuedu《lengpi》,kuai3faxiannianqingdexibanyaxiaoshuojiapiniaoerzhengshituchengweizheiyangde“kantanzhe”。

  piniaoerbenrenshirenleixuejia,xiexiaoshuoyuanbenshitadefuye。kefuyefanrangtayinqishijiewentandezhumu。tashanyujianggushi,tongshiyoushanyutongguogushisikaohebiaoda。tayeshifenlejieduzhedeyueduxinliheyueduxuqiu。zaitakanlai,meiyousuoweidetongsuxiaoshuo,yemeiyousuoweideyansuxiaoshuo,zhiyouqingjiehaokanqueyousixiangshenkedexiaoshuo。xiechuzheiyangdexiaoshuo,zuojiaxuyaojingjie、jiqiao、xiangxiangli,gengxuyaoxueshi、zhihuihetianfu。jinzhangdeqingjie,kongbudeqifen,qihuandexiangxiang,shenkedesisuo,youyu、guduyouyoudianguguaidexingxiang,jianlian、youmeiyoubufachongjilideyuyan……zheixiezongheyinsu,rang《lengpi》yingdeleduzhedexiai。zaichubanhouduanduanjinian,tayibeifanyichengershiduozhongyuyan,zaishijiegediguangweiliuchuan。

  jiang《lubinxunpiaoliuji》he《lengpi》bijiaozhedu,nengduchubushaoyiweihelequ。zaibijiao、duizhaohefanchenzhong,kuai3bunandechuzheiyangdejielun: 《lengpi》bingbushidui《lubinxunpiaoliuji》dejiandanmofang,ershidui《lubinxunpiaoliuji》deshenkedianfu。zheizhongdianfujishiwenxuede,youshizhengzhide,yeshizhexuede。zheizhongdianfurangkuai3huodelequanxindeyueduganjue,yirujianadazuojiayang·mateersuoshuo: “yigeyikourenxinxiandeqingjiebaozhuangdezheligushi,yiduanduigudu、baolijiqiduirenleideyiyideshensi,yifenmeimiao、kongbueryouwenroudeyuedutiyan。”

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