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中国文学网

评论应该怎么写——读多克特罗《创造灵魂的人》

郭英剑
  埃德加·劳伦斯·多克特罗(E.L.Doctorow)是美国当代著名作家,被冠以后现代主义作家之名,同时他还是一位出色的文学与文化批评家。

  duoketeluo1931nianchushengyumeiguoniuyue,qifuweieguoyoutairenhouyi。tacengzainiuyueshidebulangkesikexuegaozhongshangxue,1948nianrukennienxueyuanduzhexue,daxueqijiancengshicongshiren、xinpipingjiayuehan·lansaimu。1952nianzaigelunbiyadaxueduyanjiusheng,zhuanyeshiyingguoxiju。yinianhouyingzhengruwu,beipaiwangdeguo。tuiwuhuidaoniuyuehou,duoketeluochuangzuolediyibuxiaoshuo《huanyinglaidaojiannanshidai》(welcome to hard times,1960)。cihou,tazuolejiuniandetushubianji,xianshizaixinmeiguowenkuchubanshe,houlaidaoriguichubanshezuozongbianji。qijian,tachubanlezhanmusi·baodewenhenuoman·meiledengbushaomeiguozhumingzuojiadezuopin。1969nian,tachengweijiazhoudaxueewanfenxiaodezhuxiaozuojia,zhuanxinxiezuo。1971nianchubande《danyilishu》(the book of daniel)bei《weibao》yuweiyibu“jiezuo”,《niuyueshibao》congcibaduoketeluoguiru“yiliumeiguozuojia”dexinglie。

  tadexiaoshuo《lagetaimushidai))(ragtime)beiyuwei“20shijibaibuzuiyouxiudexiaoshuozhiyi”。qizuopinru《jinjun》(the march)《shangdizhicheng》(city of god)《shirendeshenghuo》(lives of the poets)《shijiebolanhui》(world's fair)《bili·basigaite》(billy  batheate)he《gongshuixitong》(the waterworks)denggengshidiandingletazaimeiguowenxueshishangdediwei。duoketeluocengzaipulinsidun、yeludengxiaorenjiao,muqianshimeiguoniuyuedaxuedeyingwenjiaoshou。tadezuopinhuodeguomeiguoquanguotushujiang,liangduhuodemeiguobihui/fukenaxiaoshuojiang,sancihuodequanguoshupingjiaxiehuijiang。chucizhiwai,tahaihuodeguoyidisi·wodunxiaoshuojiang,meiguoyishuyurenwenxueyuanweilian·dien·haoweiersijiang。1998nian,tahuodeleyoumeiguozongtongbanfadeguojiarenwenjiangzhang。qizhongduozuopinyibeifanyichengsanshiduozhongyuyanliuchuanshijie。

  zuoweizuojiashezupinglunjie,zaiguoneiheguowaidewenxuejiedouhenchangjian。bawenxuepipingdangzuofuyededuoketeluo,qisixiang、jianshidoubushuzhuanyepipingjia。qisuibiji《chuangzaolinghunderen》(creationists: selected essays,1993-2006)you16pianwenzhangzucheng,daduoshiduoketeluozaixueshuhuiyishangdeyanjiang、fayan,huoshiweixiangguanzuojiazuopinxiedeyinyanhuohouji。《chuangzaolinghunderen》yaozhishitantaoxiangxiangxingsiweidebenzhiwenti。xiangxiangxingsiweibujinshejiwenxue、wenhua,haishejikexuenaizhishehui。weiraozheiyibenzhiwenti,duoketeluocongwenxuetanqi,you《shengjing》daozhongduozuojia——ruailun·po、situofuren、make·tuwen、haimingwei、ase·miledeng,zaidaoxiju,zuihoudaokexueyuzhanzheng。

  duoketeluodepinglunshejixuduojutiyouqudanyouzhiguanzhongyaodewenti。biru,kuai3douzhidao《baijing》shimiaoxiebaijingdehaiyangxiaoshuo,danduoketeluowen,zaiyibu566yedexiaoshuozhong,weishenmezhidaodi537yebaijingcailuchushuimianpenshuini?zairu,d.h。laolunsicongaidejia·ailun·podezuopinzhongtuiduanchupo“jingshenehua”dejielun——kuai3xiangxinbuzhiyigerenhuizheimekandaiailun·po(baokuoyupotongmingyundezuojiamen),danduoketeluodewentishi: yigezhenzhengjingshenbengkuiderenzenmekenengchuangzuochuzhangdashubaiyedexiaoshuo、shige、wenxuepinglun、meixueyuanlini?haiyou,neigecongweidaoguomeiguodekafuka,shizenyangxiangdao、youshizenyangxiechule《meiguo》zheiyijingdianzhizuodeni?zheixiewenti,shiduzhebuzhibujuegensuizuozhedesiluqianxing,zheizhengshiduoketeluodegaomingzhichu。

  duoketeluowenxuepinglundelingyigetedianshi,tabushiweipinglunerpinglun、weishenkeershenke,ershirangduzhezhendekandaoletadedongjian。tadezuopinshiyuguangkuo、sixiangshenke、guandianxinying,lingrenshenshouqifa。lirutazailunshu《chuangshiji》deyipianwenzhangzhonggaosuduzhe,gushishirenleizhishidechuzangshi。henjiuyiqian,renleizhiyougushi,gushijiuxiangkuai3zuxianshiyongdetieqiaoyiyangzhongyao。zhiyinzheixiegushiyidaidaikouerxiangchuan,kuai3caiyoujintiandelishi,yecaiyourenshishijie、lejielishidekenengxing。tazaigaodupingjiaaiyinsitandegongxianshi,yetixingduzhebuyaowangji,chanshengaiyinsitandeshidaigengchanshengleyidapiwenxueyishujiedejingying,wenxueyishuyukexueyouzhetongdengzhongyaodediwei。

  congmouzhongjiaodujiang,zuojiacongshiwenxuewenhuapiping,yaobibucongshiwenxuechuangzuoderenyougengshencengcidelijie,yegengnengdongxizuojiadechuangzuoxinlinaizhijingweidexushijiqiao。zheiyidiantuchuditixianzaiduoketeluoduizuojiaxushishoufahejiqiaodetouchefenxizhong。tacaiyongdexinpipingshide“xidu”fangfa,henyoushuofuli。tatichu,jiuxushieryan,zai《baijing》zhong,zhongdianyinggaishiyubaijingdexiangyu,danmaierweierquejiangdabufenpianfudouhuazaiduiludiherendexushushang,ruci,zuozhezaichuangzuoshihuibuhuiyoujiaolvganni?lingwai,tafenxikafukade《meiguo》shi,yinyonglezhurengongkaerduimeiguozhengzhijihuidexizhiguancha,ranhoushuo: “zheishiyichangcongouzhoudeyangtaishangguanchadaodemeiguodezhengzhijihui。”shenweizuojia,ziranhuizhongshiqitazuojiadexushishoufa,tongshi,zheixiesikaoyefanyingchuzuozhebenrendechuangzuosixiangyuyishushoufa,bingjiduzheyishenkedeqishi。

  zheilihaiyaotebietidaoduoketeluoposhiqieyanjianyigaidepinglunyuyan。kuai3tebietidaozheidian,shiyinweikuai3henduopinglunwenzhangdouxihuanhuoxiguanyushiyongjianshendelilun,huisenandong,fangfoburuci,pinglunjiubushenke。duoketeluodewenzhangyouhuazezhang,wuhuazeduan,qieyuyanpingshiliuchang,zheiyinggaishipinglunwenzhangdezhongyaotezheng。

  duoketeluodesixiangshirushide,yinerduishijieheshehuiduoyouguanzhu、pinglun。duoketeluodepinglunjuyouxianmingdeshidaitezheng。tazaihuodemeiguoguojiarenwenjiangzhanghoushuo: “kuai3zhendebuzhidaoruhejiangrenwencongshenghuozhongfenlikailai……kuai3youshihendanyou,zaikuai3dewenhuazhong,barenwenyuyishufangzaiyibian,lingyibianzeshiyansu、shiyonghejianyingdeshangyeshijie,zheiyangdefenleifangfashizaishigecuowu。”zai《chuangzaolinghunderen》zhong,duoketeluocongrenwen、yishudeshijiaolaiguanzhaoshijie。zuoweiyimingzuoyizhishifenzi,duoketeluozaishuzhonghaobuyinhuizijizuoqingdezhengzhiguandian,baokuoduizongtongfadongyilakezhanzhengdebuliuqingmiandepiping。henduoshihou,jijinzhengzhiguandiankenenghuiyingxiangyigerenrenshishijie、kandairensheng、pingjiashehuidechiduyubiaozhun。duoketeluodezhengzhiguandiansuiranjijin,qizhengzhitaiduzaimeiguoyeyinqibushaozhengyi,danzheibingmeiyouzhebitaruilidemuguang。taduishidaijiweimingan,xiangxianglifengfu,fenxitouche。zai“aiyinsitan”he“zhadan”liangwenzhong,kuai3kandaolelilunwulixuejia“beimiuertongkudemingyun”,suirantamen“gegecaihuahengyi,dantamenzaiyanjiuzhongsuoqudedekexuejinzhanhefaxian,quezongshiwufazaiqingganshangtonggongzuobeihouneihuiandemudelianxiqilai”。

  sixiangshenke、jianjiedute、yuyanjianjie,duishijiehelishidebuduansikaoshiduoketeluodewenxueyuwenhuapinglundetezheng,erzheizhengshikuai3zheigeshidaisuoxuyaode。

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