快3

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中国文学网

新时期文艺意识形态论争反思

杨杰 段超

快3  “wenxueshishenme”,zheishiwenxuelilunyanjiudejibenwentizhiyi。kexuedirenshizheiyiwenti,shiwenxuelilunyanjiuchaozhezhengquefangxiangfazhandeqianti。gaigekaifangyilai,weiraozheiyiwenti,lilunjiechanshenglekuangrichijiuqieyingxiangshenyuandelunzheng,jiaodianjizhongzaiwenxuedeshenmeishuxingyuyishixingtaishuxingzhiguanxishang。suizhetaolundeshenru,xuejiezhujianxingchengleliangpaiji“shenmeiyishixingshipai”he“shenmeiyishixingtaipai”duilidejumian。“shenmeiyishixingshipai”renwei,“wenxueshishenmeiyishixingshideyuyanyishuchuangzao”;“shenmeiyishixingtaipai”zerenwei,“wenxueshiyizhongyuyanyishu,shihuayuyunjiezhongdeshenmeiyishixingtai”。shuangfangdouchengrenwenxuedeshenmeishuxing,fenqizaiyuwenxue(jiqishenmeishuxing)yuyishixingtaihuoyishixingshizhijiancunzaizenyangdeguanxi。ruoyaozhengquekandaihepingjiazheichanglunzheng,jinyibushenhuaduiyu“wenxueshishenme”zheiyiyuanwentiderenshi,jixuyaozuoxueshushideshuli,youxuyaojinxinglilungainianshangdebianxi。gengweizhongyaodeshi,yaolizuxinshidaishehuizhuyiwenyifazhandexianshiyujing,zheishikuai3fenxiwenti、jiejuewentideluojiaodianheqianti。

  折射出问题意识和理论发展 

  zheichanglunzhengdeyuantou,kezhuisudaogaigekaifangchuqizhuguangqianfabiaode《yanjiumeixueshideguandianhefangfa》(1978)、《shangcengjianzhuheyishixingtaizhijianguanxidezhiyi》(1979)he《〈xifangmeixueshi〉xulun》(1979)sanpianwenzhang。tarenwei“wenyishiyishixingtaidanfeishangcengjianzhu”,youciyinfalelilunjieguanyu“wenyizuoweishehuiyishixingtaishifoushuyushangcengjianzhu”detaolun。zici,duiyuwenxuebenzhishuxingdetantaobuduanshenru。

快3  zongtishangkan,zheichanglunzhengfenweiliangdaluojicengcihesigefazhanjieduan。youyuxianshidefuzaxing,gegelilunjieduanzhijianhuoduohuoshaocunzaishijianshangdezhongdie,danqineizailuojishiyiguande。diyidacengcizhuyaotantaowenxueyu“yishixingtai”huo“yishixingshi”zhiguanxi。qizhongkefenweilianggefazhanjieduan。diyigejieduan(1978—1988)jiguanyu“wenyizuoweishehuiyishixingtaishifoushuyushangcengjianzhu”detaolun;diergejieduan(1986—1991)tongguodui“yishixingtai”he“yishixingshi”neihandeciyuanxuebianxi,liqingwenxueyu“yishixingtai”he“yishixingshi”zhiguanxi。dierdacengcishuyuteshuxinghuoneihancengci,zhuyaotantaowenxuedeshenmeishuxingyu“yishixingtai”zhijiandeguanxi。qizhongyekefenweilianggefazhanjieduan。diyigejieduan(1984—2003)shi“shenmeiyishixingtai”lundetichuyuliuxingjieduan,diergejieduan(2003—2008)shidui“shenmeiyishixingtai”lundepipanhe“shenmeiyishixingshi”lundexingqijieduan。congzhuguangqiande“wenyishiyishixingtaidanfeishangcengjianzhu”shuo,jing“shenmeiyishixingtai”lundao“shenmeiyishixingshi”lun,guanyuwenxueyuyishixingtaiguanxideyanjiuhelunzheng,chixule30nian。kejian,wulunlilunfengbiaoruhezhuanxiang、fangfazenyanggengxin,jichulilunyujibenwentideyanjiushizhongjuyouhengchangdejiazhiheshengmingli,qiezaigengshencengcishangzheshechuyigeshidaidewentiyishihelilunfazhan。

  学界热议文艺属性 

  “wenyizuoweishehuiyishixingtaishifoushuyushangcengjianzhu”,muqianxuejieyirancunzaifenqi。yizhongyijianrenwei,shangcengjianzhubaokuosixiangshangcengjianzhu(jiyishixingtai)hezhengzhishangcengjianzhu(jizhengzhifalvzhidu、zuzhihesheshideng);lingyizhongyijianrenwei,shangcengjianzhujizhengzhifalvzhidu、zuzhihesheshideng,bubaokuoyishixingtai。youyushuyuyifabutong,zhuguangqiansuowei“yishixingtai”shiwei“yishixingshi”huo“shehuiyishixingshi”(forms of social consciousness,deyubewusstseinsformen),bingfeijintiantongyongshuyuyiyishangde“yishixingtai”(ideology,deyuideologie)。ruguoyongxianxingtongyongyiminglaibiaoshu,gaijieduantaolundeqianti“wenyishishehuiyishixingtai”shiwei“wenyishishehuiyishixingshi”,duiyuwenxueyu“yishixingtai”deguanxiwenti,bingmeiyoutaolunhejiejue。tongguozheichangtaolun,wenxuezuowei“yishixingshi”deteshuxingcong“shangcengjianzhu”zhongtuxianchulai,weitantaowenxueyu“yishixingtai”zhiguanxizuohaolepudian。

  youxuezhezhichu,ideologiezimianhanyiwei“sixiangtixi”huo“sixianglilun”erfei“yishixingtai”,erbewusstseinsformenzimianhanyicaishi“yishixingtai”(zheiyuzhuguangqiandeyifayizhi)。zhuzhanganzhaomakesideyuanyi,bazhengzhi、zongjiao、yishudengguirubewusstseinsformen,erbazhengzhi、zongjiao、yishudesixianglilunguiruideologie。yeyouxuezhezhichu,zaimakesideyouguanlunshuli,“bingmeiyouzhijiebawenxueyishuchengwei‘yishixingtai’huo‘teshudeyishixingtai’,ershibatashuochengshiyizhong‘shehuiyishixingshi’huo‘yishixingtaidexingshi’”,jinerzhichu“wenxueyishudeteshuxingzaiyutashiyishixingtaihefeiyishixingtaidejiheti”。1991nian,zaiquanguomaliewenlunyanjiuhuidishierjiexueshutaolunhuishang,duiyuwenxueyuyishixingtaideguanxifenlieweiliangpai: yipaijianchiyishixingtaixingshiwenyidebenzhishuxing,qizhongyouyourenrenweiwenyishiteshudeyishixingtaijishenmeideyishixingtai;lingyipaijianchiwenyishiyishixingtaihefeiyishixingtaidejiheti。erzhefenbiekeyishiwei“shenmeiyishixingtai”lunyu“shenmeiyishixingshi”lundechuxing。

  “shenmeiyishixingtai”lunjiangwenxuedeyishixingtaishuxingyushenmeishuxingjieheqilai,mingquetichu“wenxueshiyizhongshenmeideyishixingtaixing”。duiyushenmeiyuyishixingtaideguanxijieshiwei: “wenxuedeshenmeiyishixingtaishuxing,shizhiwenxuedeshenmeibiaoxianguochengyuyishixingtaixianghujinran、bicishentoudezhuangkuang,biaomingshenmeizhongjintouleyishixingtai,yishixingtaijieshenmeichuandachulai。”duiyuwenxuezuoweiyishixingtaijieshiwei: “wenxueshijingshenxianxiangzhiyi,shirenleiyishihuodongdechanwu……tarutongzhengzhi、zhexue、kexue、zongjiao、daodeyiyang,shiyizhongshehuiyishixingtai。”wenxuede“shenmeiyishixingtai”lunzi1992nianxieru《wenxuelilunjiaocheng》hou,dedaoguangfanchuanbo,bingbeichilunzhechengwei“wenyixuedediyiyuanli”。

快3  “shenmeiyishixingshi”lunrenwei,“wenxueshikeyijuyouyishixingtaixingdeshenmeishehuiyishixingshi,shishenmeishehuiyishixingshidehuayushengchanfangshi”。shuangfangfenqideguanjiandianzaiyudui“yishixingtai”delijie。zuoweiyigezongtixinggainian,yishixingtaifanyingdeshishehuijingjixingtaihezhengzhizhidudexingzhi,daiyoumingxiandejiejishuxinghuozhengzhiqingxiangxing。wenxueyishuzhinengzuoweiyizhongshehuiyishixingshi,zaiyidingchengdushangnenggoufanyingtedingdeyishixingtai,keyidaiyouyidingdeyishixingtaixing,danzheizhongyishixingtaishuxingbunengyuwenxueyishudebenzhihuadenghao。chilunzhezhichu,“ruguozailikaijiejiyishihezhengzhiqingxiangdeyiyishangyunyongsuowei‘yishixingtai’gainian,shijishangshizaocheng‘yishixingtai’defanhua”。“shenmeiyishixingtai”lunyong“shenmei”laiguidingwenxuedeyishixingtaishuxing,“shijishangbamakesizhuyideyishixingtaililunquanranshenmeihuale,zheizhongzaishenmeilingyuzhongduimakesizhuyiyishixingtaililundegaixie,bujinweibeimakesizhuyiyishixingtaililundeyuanyi,erqie,yeyoubeiyumakesizhuyiyishixingtaililundejibenjingshenhegenbenzongzhi”。

  以人民性统领审美 

  ruoyaoquanmianpingjiazheiyilunzheng,kuai3haixuhuidaoshangcengjianzhu、yishixingshiheyishixingtaideguanxishang。yishixingtaijiushishangcengjianzhuheyishixingshixiangzhonghedebufen,tajishi“sixiangshangcengjianzhu”(qubieyuzhengzhifalvzhidu、zuzhihesheshidengzhengzhishangcengjianzhu),juyoujiejishuxinghuozhengzhiqingxiangxing,youshiyizhong“shehuiyishixingshi”。wenxueyishuzuoweishehuiyishixingshi,jijuyoufeiyishixingtaixingdechengfen,youkeyijuyouyishixingtaixingdechengfen。yinci,danyongyishixingtaijiedingwenxueyishuhuizouxiangwuqu。bijiaoeryan,“shenmeiyishixingshipai”duiyuwenxuedejieshuo,jizhichulewenxuezuoweiyishixingshikeyijuyouyishixingtaishuxing,youzhichulewenxuezuoweiyuyanyishusuojuyoudeshenmeishuxing,keyishuoshifuhemakesizhuyiyuanlihewenxueyishushijidelunduan。

  yingdangzhichu,dui“shenmeixing”deguoduguanzhuyichanshengwenxueyanjiu“shenmeihua”depianpo。2008nian,youxuezheyi“shenmei”pipanweiqierudian,dui“wenxueshishenme”dewentijinxinglezonghebianzheng,zhichu“wenxuejiazhi,bijingshiduoyuanjiazhidefuhe,guofenqiangdiaowenxuedeshehuigongli,guranhuiweijiwenxue,erguofentuizhongqishenmeijiazhi,jiangqishiweiwenxueyishudegenbenjiazhi、shouyaojiazhi,huozuigaoshuxing,yeshizhidehuaiyide”。yeyouxuezhezhichu“wenxuedeshenmeihuayanjiu……buguoshiduiwenxueyanjiuzhengtirenshiguochengzhongdeyigehuanjiehebuzhou,queshaofenjiehoudezongheyijijingzhihoudeyundong,ruguojiangciyanjiumoshiwuxiankuozhan,henrongyixianru‘yiyizhongjiduanbochilingyizhongjiduan’deguaiquan,suodedaodeguanyuwenxuedeguidingyenanmianyipiangaiquan”。yinci,youbiyaojiangwenxueshiwei“yizhongdaiyoushenmeitezhidelishixianxianghefuyoulishiyunhandeshenmeixianxiang”,yunyongmakesizhuyi“meixuedeyulishide”guandianduiwenxuejibenyuanlijinxingzonghebianzhengyanjiu。

  fansihepingjiawenxueyishixingtailunzheng,duiyubawomakesizhuyiwenxuelilundefazhanfangxiangjuyouzhongdaxianshiyiyi。dangdeshijiudabaogaozhichu: “yishixingtaijuedingwenhuaqianjinfangxianghefazhandaolu。”zheishiduiyishixingtaizhanlveyinlingzuoyongdezhongdalunduan,weikuai3jinyiburenqingwenxueyuyishixingtaideguanxiwentizhiminglefangxiang。kuai3bixujianchiyirenminweizhongxindewenyiguan,lizukuai3guoxianshi,bawenxuedeyishixingtaixinghefeiyishixingtaixing、shenmeixinghegonglixingtongyidaorenminxingshang。zheishizaigenggaocengcishangdui“wenxueshirenxue”zheiyimakesizhuyiwenxuelilunjibenmingtidebianzhenghuigui。

  (本文系中国传媒大学思想政治教育提升项目研究成果) 

  (作者单位: 中国传媒大学艺术研究院;中国传媒大学人文学院) 

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